Unit 4: 1800-1848

Outline
General Timelines
 

Timeline #1: Jeffersonian Era & Pre-War of 1812

Timeline #2: War of 1812

Timeline #3: Post-War of 1812 Political Developments

Timeline #4: Market Revolution

Timeline #5: The Cotton Kingdom

Timeline #6: 19th Century Reform Movements

General Maps
 

Map # 1: US during War of 1812

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Map # 2: Post-War Political Developments

Map # 3: The Market Revolution

Map # 4: The Cotton Kingdom

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Map # 5: 19th Century Reform Movements

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Course Content
 

Developments in Jefferson's Presidency:

 

Jefferson's Developments as President

Achievements by Jefferson

  • Jefferson's overall vision for America was an agrarian society instead of an industrial cities w/ big cities

  • Jefferson was a very smart & shrewd politician

    • Easily won reelection in 1804 against Charles C Pinckney, increased Republican majorities in Congress

  • Jefferson cut national debts by half

    • Removed internal taxes, only imposed taxes on westward land & imports​

  • Jefferson reduced navy size, which cut gov spending

    • Believed a navy would undermine his agrarian vision for America

    • Established West Point in 1802 as a reduced navy would require a large army

  • Won a conflict with North African states, causing him to pay less in tariffs

    • All ships passing through Mediterranean had to pay tariffs to North African Kingdoms

    • Jefferson built up his navy for war against Tripoli (one of the kingdoms) and won, so he didn't have to pay that tax ever again

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Marbury v Madison & Federalist Majority in Court

  • Jefferson sought to maintain a Republican majority in the Supreme Court

    • Sought to repeal Adams's "midnight appointments"

  • Marbury v Madison court case challenged Congress's policies, establishing Judicial Review

    • John Adams appointed Marbury as justice, but his commission letter was delivered when Adams left office

    • James Madison (Jefferson's secretary of state) protested Marbury's appointment as it was late

    • Court got involved, John Marshall (chief justice) said that the appointment was invalid

      • This was known as Judicial Review, the idea that Court can nullify unconstitutional acts passed by Congress & executive branches

  • Through Judicial Review, John Marshall established the concept of the Supreme Court's relationship to executive & legislative branches 

  • Later, Jefferson sought to impeach justice Samuel Chase, a far-right Federalist in court

    • Congress impeached him, but less than 2/3 of Senate voted in favor, so the case was closed

    • Set the precedent that impeachments can only be used in case of crimes, not for routine purposes

  • Jefferson had to deal with a Federalist majority in Court, which supported extreme policies that he hated

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Rise of American Culture

Education

  • Education was limited and mostly for white males

    • Religious education was common in south

    • Secular education was common in north

    • Mostly were private schools, only rich could afford

    • Poor people went to inferior schools

  • Everyone else (not white males) had limited opportunities

    • Women often went to primary schools but not universities as they didn't need a job

      • Believed they needed to learn to teach republican values to their kids

    • Indians received little education

      • Some missionary schools opened for Indians

      • Whites sought to "civilize" the Indians

    • Slaves & free blacks had barely any education

      • If slaves went to school, they'd learn about their terrible condition & learn to rebel

      • Free blacks in the north sometimes went to segregated inferior schools

  • Universities were rare, really expensive

  • Medical knowledge was almost nonexistant

    • UPenn opened first medical school, taught people about germs & anatomy using cadavers​

    • Benjamin Rush believed that bleeding & purging would cure people (it failed)

    • Number of midwives decreased

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Culture & Religion

  • Americans sought to develop their own culture distinct from Britain

    • Sought to promote patriotic education in schools

    • Noah Webster created an American Dictionary w/ different spellings from Britain

      • honour became honor, etc.

  • American authors sought to create literature that represented American culture & style

    • Many wrote novels, much different from the British idea of poetry

  • As republican ideals of liberty spread, people started to separate from religion

    • Church attendance was significantly decreased

    • John Murray founded the Universalist church in 1779, rejected the idea of predestination

      • Believed anyone can use reason and faith to achieve salvation

      • Unitarian church was very similar to this

    • People believed in rational religion instead of formal church gatherings

    • This decline in religion caused 2nd Great Awakening

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Westward Expansion & Exploration

Louisiana Purchase

  • Since 1800, Napoleon (French emperor) sought to regain land in the New World

    • Regained Louisiana Territory from Spain in Secret Treaty, Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800)

    • French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) declared independence, Napoleon sought to regain it

  • Jefferson found out about French regain of Louisiana

    • Pinckney's Treaty w/ Spain authorized Americans to use Port of New Orleans

    • Now under French control, that wasn't the case

    • American merchants complained that they lost their rights to Port of New Orleans

      • If Jefferson ignores them, he'd lose popularity

      • If Jefferson questions French authority there, he'd risk having a war with France

  • Jefferson's final idea was just to buy the Port of New Orleans so American merchants could dock there

    • Sent Robert R. Livingston to France to sign peace settlement to end Quasi War in 1800

    • Sent James Monroe to France to assist him & petition to purchase Port of New Orleans

    • Napoleon offered the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million, which they agreed to

      • Napoleon had already failed his ambitions in the New World, so he sold it to raise revenue (1803)

  • Louisiana territory was organized into districts that could petition statehood at a certain population

    • Just like Northwest Territory​

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Lewis & Clark's Expedition

  • Jefferson sought to expand westward to Pacific Ocean

    • Hired Meriwether Lewis & William Clark to lead a westward expedition

  • In Spring 1804, Lewis & Clark ​(along w/ some others) traveled westward from St. Louis

    • Shoshone Indian woman Sacajawea helped guide them across the Rocky Mtns

    • Reached Pacific Coast in 1805, returned to St. Louis in 1806 w/ lots of geographical knowledge

  • Jefferson also dispatched Zebulon Pike to explore the upper Mississippi Valley

    • Pike started in 1805, reached Colorado in 1806 & discovered a tall mountain (now called Pikes Peak)

    • Returned & told that the land to the west is uninhabitable & like a desert

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Burr Conspiracy

  • Many Federalists in New England hated westward expansion

    • A group known as "Essex Junto" sought to secede from the US

    • Needed support from NY & NJ as their economies are more powerful & can help the new nation

      • Alexander Hamilton, leading Federalist of NY, refused the proposal​

  • The Federalists had one last chance to make their case

    • Aaron Burr (Jefferson's first VP) was running against Hamilton for New York governor

    • If Burr was elected, Burr would secede from the union w/ the New England Federalists

  • Burr lost the election & challenged Hamilton to a duel​

    • Hamilton didn't want to be a coward, so he agreed to it

    • Burr beat Hamilton in the duel, causing Hamilton to die the next day

  • Burr fled to the west to escape prosecution for murder

    • Allied w/ James Wilkinson, governor of Louisiana Territory, to create a state in Southwest US, separate from the US

  • Jefferson hated Burr's goal but believed everything he sought to do

    • Burr led a group of armed men into Ohio River

    • Wilkinson told Jefferson that Burr would attack New Orleans

    • Jefferson had Burr jailed & sent to trial

    • Burr was acquitted as there was no evidence that he'd actually attack New Orleans

      • This is known as Burr Conspiracy

War of 1812:

 

Causes of the War of 1812

Conflict with Britain at Sea

  • During French Revolution, Napoleon led France through a war w/ rest of Europe

    • Britain defeated France at Battle of Trafalgar (1805)

      • France issued Continental System, a law preventing Britain from trading w/ continental Europe

      • Britain responded & issued "Orders in Council," blockading France from trade w/ continental Europe & Britain

    • US couldn't remain neutral in France-Britain conflict

      • Britain would attack US for trading w/ France

      • France would attack US for trading w/ Britain

  • Britain later instituted the policy of "impressment," harming the US

    • British would force American sailors to serve in the British navy

      • This idea was called "impressment"

    • Many of these impressed sailors would defect back onto American ships when they get the chance

    • Britain thus reserved the right to search any American ship for defected British soldiers

    • In 1807, James Barron commanded Chesapeake ship of the US

      • British ship Leopard arrived, forced Barron to let them search his ship

      • Barron refused, so British opened fire, so Barron surrendered

      • British dragged 4 men off Barron's ship

      • Known as the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807)

    • James Monroe was sent as diplomat to Britain

      • Britain compensated the US for the incident

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US's Trade Embargo

  • Congress enacted The Embargo Act of 1807

    • Prevented US ships from trading in any foreign port

    • Many people evaded this law, especially Federalists

    • This idea of placing an embargo was called "peaceable coercion"​

  • In 1809, as the Embargo of 1807 was hurting the economy, Congress enacted Non-Intercourse Act

    • Allowed US ships to travel anywhere except Britain & France

  • In 1810, Congress signed Macon's Bill No. 2, allowing trade w/ France & Britain if they repeal their restrictions on American shipping

    • France agreed to it

    • Britain agreed much later, and the US sought war with Britain until they'd repeal their restrictions

      • This is the main cause of War of 1812

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The Indian Opposition to the US

  • William Henry Harrison was congressional delegate from NW territory & promoted westward expansion

    • Passed Harrison Land Law of 1800, making it easier for whites to acquire land in the west​

    • Jefferson supported Harrison & extracted many treaties from the Indians for land in the Midwest

    • Jefferson offered the Indians to assimilate into white society or move west of the Mississippi River

  • British supplied the Indians in the west w/ arms

    • After Chesapeake-Leopard Incident (1807), anti-British feeling spread throughout US​

    • British thought the US would invade Canada, so the British mobilized resources in Canada

    • Britain also supplied arms to the Indians in the US against the Americans (to help the British)

    • Allowed the Indians to somewhat resist white encroachment in the west

  • 2 Indians emerged as leaders, unifying the Indians​

    • Tenskwatawa ("the prophet") was a religious leader, promoting an anti-white feeling among the Indians​

      • Unified the Indians through his religious ideas

      • His home base (Prophetstown) became a sacred place

    • Tecumseh unified the Indians militarily & formed armies to attack white settlements

      • Once, William Henry Harrison burned down Prophetstown in Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)

      • Still, Tecumseh continued to mobilize his army and raid white settlements

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Desire to Conquer Florida & Start of War

  • Americans had long desired to take over Florida

    • Many Indians in Florida launched raids into Georgia​

    • Many slaves in Georgia escaped to Florida

    • Florida's location was ideal

  • In 1810, Americans took over a Spanish Fort at Baton Rouge (present-day Louisiana)

    • James Madison (current president) agreed with them to annex the strip of land from Louisiana to Florida

    • Believed war with Britain was a pretext to annex that land

  • Because of all of these causes (mostly British threats to American shipping), Americans sought war w/ Britain

    • In 1810 elections, many elected representatives supported war

      • Henry Clay became Speaker of the House & promoted a vision for war

      • John Calhoun was head of Committee of Foreign Affairs & also supported war

        • Clay & Calhoun had important roles later in American History

    • Eventually, in June 1812, James Madison approved war w/ Britain, starting the War of 1812

  • In addition to annexing Florida, US wanted to annex Canada

Battles in the War of 1812

American Battles with the Indians

  • In first phase of the war, Britain was preoccupied with Napoleonic Wars in Europe

    • Thus, war was mostly between US and the Indians 

    • Many Indians were brought to Canada by the British, and the British in Canada supplied them w/ weapons

In Jul 1812, Gen. William Hull invaded Canada through Detroit. He failed & retreated back to Detroit in Aug 1812

In Apr 1813, Gen. Zebulon Pike burned city of York (present-day Toronto). US won, but Pike was killed

In Sept 1813, Com. Oliver Hazard Perry defeated British navy at Battle of Lake Erie (Put-in Bay)

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In Mar 1814, Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians in Florida (Tecumseh's allies). He seized control of some parts of Florida (Battle of Horseshoe Bend)

In Oct 1813, Gen. William Henry Harrison led army via Thames River in Canada. Killed Tecumseh at Battle of Thames

American Battles with the British

In Apr 1814, Napoleon is defeated in France, exiles in Elba. Thus, Britain can focus more on this war instead of Napoleonic Wars

In Aug 1814, British troops defeat an American militia at Bladensburg (near Washington DC)

The same day as Battle of Bladensburg, British troops advance to Washington DC, burn many buildings including White House

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In Jan 1815, US defeats British at Battle of New Orleans & kills British Commander Edward Pakenham. This ended the war

In Sept 1814, British attack Fort McHenry (Baltimore). US clogs the harbor w/ sunken ships, so British attack from a distance. US wins

Americans successfully defended British force at Battle of Plattsburgh (Sept 1814)

Fun Fact: Creation of the Star Spangled Banner

During the Battle of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key (American lawyer) was aboard one of the British ships. From the ship, he saw that the fort was very destroyed, but the flag was still waving. He wrote a poem about the flag called "Star Spangled Banner" on the back of an envelope. This later became the national anthem in 1931. 

End of the War of 1812

Hartford Convention

  • During War of 1812, Federalists in New England opposed the war effort

    • Hated the Republican government of the US

    • Celebrated British victories

    • New England (which was majority Federalist) sought to secede from the Union

  • In Dec 1814, Federalist delegates from New England met at Hartford (Hartford Convention)

    • Discussed grievances to the Republican gov​

    • Unfortunately, the Federalists who supported secession were outnumbered by a more moderate majority that opposed secession

    • Made a list of 7 Constitutional amendments to protect New England from influence from the rest of the US

  • However, after Victory at New Orleans (Jan 1815), many started to despise the Federalists (mostly b/c they supported the British)

    • Plans for secession were canceled

    • Largely caused Federalist party to disappear

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Peace Settlement

  • Treaty of Ghent (1814) restored pre-war boundaries & agreements

    • US would give up demands to annex Canada​

    • US would give the Northwest land to the Indians

      • This was not actually implemented

    • Discussed & approved in Dec 1814, officially ratified in Feb 1815

  • A treaty in 1815 allowed the US to trade freely w/ Britain without any restrictions

  • Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) told US & Britain to disarm themselves near US-Canada border at Great Lakes

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Pre-Jackson Era:

 

Westward Expansion

Migration to the West

  • Growing pressure in the East caused migration to the west

    • More immigration from Europe to East created a population pressure

    • The soil (in farms) was exhausted of its nutrients

    • To accommodate more slaves, more land was needed​

  • Natives were the main hindrance to westward migration, but they were easier to control

    • War of 1812 largely eliminated them

    • US built forts in the region to protect the whites from the natives

    • US initiated "factor system," where US officials give resources to natives at a low cost

      • Allowed US officials to control natives

  • Many migrated on newly-built steamboats/flatboats

  • To scout western land, US War Dept. dispatched Stephen Long

    • Led 19 soldiers, tried to find source of Red River (but failed to do so)

    • Backed Zebulon Pike's claim that the West is like a desert

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Economy in the West

  • In the Southern region, cotton was really common

    • Arkansas / Mississippi Region was known as "black belt" due to its dark nutritious soil

      • Perfect for growing cotton

    • Known as "Cotton Kingdom"

    • Many wealthy landowners migrated to the west, sometimes took their slaves with them​

  • In the West, fur-trapping was really common

    • When Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, it opened up trade w/ US​

    • Before, Indians would trap fur & trade w/ whites, but now, Whites trapped fur themselves

    • Many companies trapped fur in the west region

    • John Jacob Astor founded Astor's American Fur Company in Oregon

      • Sold it to the British

      • Moved to the Rockies to trap fur there

    • Andrew Henry & William Ashley founded Rocky Mtn Fur Company (1822)

      • Hired many employees to trap fur, these ppl depended on wages (like factory system)

    • Most fur-trappers lived harmoniously w/ Mexicans and Indians

    • Jedediah Smith entered CA by land & started fur-trapping there, but he was killed by Mexicans

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"Era of Good Feelings"

Start of the "Era of Good Feelings"

  • The Period from ~1815-1825

    • After War of 1812, increased American nationalism

      • Henry Clay's American System

      • More transportation, national identity, etc.

    • Sometimes described as reign of James Monroe

  • When James Monroe was elected in 1816, he led a goodwill tour throughout the country

    • His victory caused Federalists to largely disappear

    • Believed his presidency was "era of good feelings"

  • Also known as end of the First Party System

    • Federalists ceased to exist

    • Republicans also lost some unity

    • Monroe was last president of Virginia Dynasty

      • Jefferson, Madison, Monroe were all from VA

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The American System

  • After War of 1812, more feelings of nationalism spread among Americans

  • In 1815, James Madison (president) promoted the idea of the "American System"​

    • Wanted a national bank​

    • Tariffs on imports to protect domestic industry

    • Wanted roads & canals to make transportation easier throughout US

  • Congress made charter for 2nd National Bank in 1816

    • Set to expire in 1836

    • Previously, 1st National Bank expired in 1811, creating many regional banks

      • These issued paper money, which wasn't backed by gold/silver, causing fluctuation in prices

    • New National Bank had more money & was backed by gold/silver bullion

  • Congress raised tariffs on imports to protect domestic industry

    • American textile industry grew due to factories, but British tried to sell their own textiles in US

    • The tariff reduced the amount of British goods sold here

  • Many roads & canals were also built throughout east coast to ease transportation

    • PA State gov sponsored a road from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh

    • Many steamboats traveled down Ohio & Mississippi Rivers

    • Still, roads were bad and caused slow travel

      • Difficult for goods to arrive in time, causing price fluctuation throughout US

      • Western roads were poorly built

  • American System was largely supported by Speaker of the House Henry Clay

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Annexation of Florida

  • John Quincy Adams was Monroe's Secretary of State

  • Adams sought to annex Florida

    • Had conquered Western FL during War of 1812, but that claim was disputed​

    • Wanted actual claim to the entire FL

  • During Seminole War (1816-1858), Seminole Indians launched raids across the FL border into US territory

    • John Calhoun (Secretary of War) encouraged Andrew Jackson (military general) to launch raids into Florida

      • Jackson took over 2 Spanish forts

  • Spanish realized they couldn't defend FL from the US

    • Realized that US had the right to launch raids into FL to prevent threats like the Seminoles

    • Spanish foreign minister Luis de Onis signed Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 w/ John Q Adams

      • US gained Florida, US would give up its claims to Texas

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Panic of 1819

During & After War of 1812, industry boomed, farmers sold at higher prices due to more wartime demand. Speculators bought land in the west

In 1819, economic increase slowed, speculators lost some money, national bank tightened its loans to speculators

Speculators couldn't pay the loans, and farmers lost a lot of money, causing financial panic from 1819 to mid 1820s

The Missouri Compromise

  • Missouri applied for statehood in 1819

    • Already had slavery well-established there​

    • There were 11 free & 11 slave states, so Missouri's admission would threaten the balance

    • NY Congress rep James Tallmadge Jr. believed MO should gradually emancipate its slaves

      • Provoked lots of controversy

  • Maine also applied for statehood as a free state

  • Henry Clay (speaker of the House) believed ME should me admitted as free, MO as slave state

    • Both states would be admitted at the same time, maintaining free/slave balance

    • Known as Missouri Compromise

    • Prevented the US from having conflict between north & south

  • Senator Jesse B Thomas proposed Thomas Amendment

    • All lands north of southern MO boundary in Louisiana Territory should be free

    • Congress soon adopted this

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John Marshall's Court Decisions

Fletcher v Peck

Land grants cannot be repealed. First time he ruled a state law unconstitutional. 

Dartmouth College v Woodward

Dartmouth's land grant cannot be repealed. 

Cohens v Virginia

Supreme Court has the power to review all state court decisions. 

McCulloch v Maryland

Supreme Court has the power to establish & regulate a national bank. States cannot tax the banks. 

Gibbons v Ogden

Supreme Court has the power to regulate interstate commerce. 

Their Effects

Overall promoted more power of the national government over the individual states. 

Johnson v McIntosh

Only national gov can buy Indian lands. Indians cannot sell their land to individuals. 

Worcester v Georgia

Only national gov can regulate access to Indian territories. States cannot do that. 

Their Effects to the Indians

Established Indians as subordinate to national gov but unregulated by states. Meant to protect them from Westward Expansion. 

Monroe Doctrine

  • From 1810-1822, all Spanish Colonies in Central & South America got independence

    • Spain was distracted from Napoleonic Wars​

    • These colonies claimed independence, drafted their own constitutions

  • James Monroe was the first to recognize their independence

  • John Q Adams (Secretary of State) drafted Monroe Doctrine (1823)

    • One of most important documents in US foreign policy​

    • Established US as a dominant power in Western Hemisphere

    • 3 parts to the doctrine are listed below

US would not interfere with European internal wars or with existing European colonies in the Americas

European powers cannot recolonize any nations in the Americas

European powers cannot interfere with the affairs of newly-independent American nations

Rise of Opposition to the Republicans

Election of 1824

  • There were 4 Republican candidates

    • John Quincy Adams (less popular, most support from Northeast)

    • Andrew Jackson (popular war hero, support from all over the nation)

    • William Crawford (Secretary of Treasury, most support from South

    • Henry Clay (Speaker of the House, support from the West)

  • In the end, Jackson had most electoral votes, Adams in 2nd, Crawford in 3rd, Clay in 4th

    • No one had the majority, though​

    • Clay rivaled Jackson and supported Adams b/c Adams supported the "American System"

  • B/c no one received the majority of electoral votes, the House decided the election

    • According to 12th amendment, House chooses among top 3 candidates

      • Clay (4th place) was eliminated

    • As Speaker of the House, Clay supported Adams as Adams also believed in "American System"

      • With this, majority of house supported Adams, and Adams became president

  • Jackson hated this result, believed it to be a "corrupt bargain"

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Presidency of John Quincy Adams

  • John Q Adams believed in promoting US economic & diplomatic power, wanted US nationalism

    • Negotiated annexation of Florida in 1819

    • Wrote Monroe Doctrine (while he was secretary of state) to establish US diplomatic dominance

    • Believed he could annex Cuba, Canada, parts of Mexico

  • Made many internal improvements​​

    • Supported Clay's "American System"​

    • Financed many roads, canals, etc.

  • Wanted American economic dominance

    • Wanted tariffs on imports to protect domestic industry

    • Passed "tariff of abominations," a tax on some imported from Britain

      • Merchants in Northeast previously complained about cheap price of imported English wool

      • Merchants in the west & south complained about other cheap imported products

        • Adams had to impose tariffs on other products as well

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Election of 1828

  • This election had 2 candidates

    • John Quincy Adams (incumbent)

      • His followers were National Republicans​

      • Believed in strong economic nationalism

      • Appealed to many remaining Federalists

    • Andrew Jackson

      • His followers were Democratic Republicans

        • Basically the Modern Democratic Party

      • Believed in widening of opportunity

        • Sought to alleviate the wealth gap​

      • Appealed to lower classes & those who hated the "economic aristocracy"​​

      • Was viewed as a "common man"

  • Popular participation was really high in this election

    • Lots of people were exposed to campaigns

    • 57% of eligible voters voted (2x from last election)

  • In the end, Jackson easily won

    • Adams had support from Northeast region

    • Jackson had support from South & West

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Jacksonian Era:

Spread of Democracy in America

Jackson's Presidency & Expanding Democracy

  • Jackson believed in giving all white males privileges

    • Wanted to subjugate blacks & Indians

    • Wanted all white males (whether or not they own property) to have right to vote

    • There was more popular participation in voting as electors were more often chosen by the people

  • Known as the president of the "common man"

    • He was a commoner himself

  • Believed in giving more power to the people

    • Fired some officeholders for corruption​

    • Didn't want people in office for too long

    • Initiated the Spoils System

      • The political party in power gives government positions to its supporters

  • There were still restrictions, though, to universal white male suffrage

    • Blacks & women could never vote

    • In casting their vote, people had to speak out loud to a moderator

      • Made voting prone to intimidation

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Dorr Rebellion

Thomas W Dorr wanted RI to lift property requirement for voting. Dorr organized the "People's Party" in 1840, passed its own constitution w/ universal white male suffrage

Existing Rhode Island gov passed its own constitution. Thus, there were 2 govs in 1842. Real gov believed Dorrites to be rebels

Dorrites tried to capture the state arsenal, but they failed and surrendered

Tocqueville and Democracy in America

  • Alex de Tocqueville was sent by France to study prisons in US​

  • Instead, Tocqueville noticed the spread of democracy and popular participation in the US

    • Observed that both rich & poor can participate in government

      • Unlike France where aristocrats dominate

    • Noticed that there are limits to democracy in US

      • Women & blacks had limited rights

    • Wrote Democracy in America with his observations

      • Became the basis for democracy in Europe

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Martin Van Buren & Rise of Political Parties

  • Martin Van Buren believed in having opposing political parties

    • Believed people should be attached to one political party

    • Believed having opposing parties would make sure the ruler responds to the will of the people

  • This idea first came to him when Van Buren led a dissent faction against NY Governor DeWitt Clinton

    • Led a group of dissenters known as "Bucktails"

    • Believed Clinton served for personal pleasure & ignored popular interests

  • There were now 2 political parties in America

    • Jacksonians were Democrats

    • Anti-Jacksonians were Whigs

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Threats to National Unity

Peggy-Eaton Affair & Martin Van Buren's Ascendance

  • Martin Van Buren was NY Governor from 1828-1829, then became Jackson's Secretary of State in 1829

    • Became good friends with Jackson

  • Jackson had a group of unofficial political allies known as the "kitchen cabinet"

    • Van Buren was the head of this group

  • Due to Peggy-Eaton Affair, John Calhoun's influence declined

    • Peggy O'Neale was a tavern keeper in DC, and Jackson & John H Eaton would sometimes stay with her when they were Senators​

    • Eaton was unmarried & had an affair w/ O'Neale

    • When O'Neale's husband died, she married Eaton

    • Jackson made Eaton Secretary of War, so Peggy O'Neale (now called Mrs. Eaton) became a cabinet wife

    • John Calhoun's wife refused to socially accept Mrs. Eaton into the cabinet wife social circle

    • Van Buren accepted Mrs. Eaton's influence, so Van Buren became friends with Jackson

      • B/c Calhoun refused to accept Mrs. Eaton, Calhoun's influence declined

      • Jackson thus chose Van Buren to succeed him as presidential nomination instead of Calhoun

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Nullification Crisis

  • South Carolina hated the "tariff of abominations"

    • Believed it slowed domestic industry & caused SC economy to stagnate

  • John Calhoun (VP of Jackson) proposed the theory of nullification

    • States could declare any federal law null within the state if they don't like this

    • Jackson strongly opposed this & said it would threaten the unity of the nation

  • In 1832, South Carolina declared the tariffs null

  • Jackson got mad & signed a bill to allow him to use force to enforce federal laws in the states

  • Henry Clay (newly-elected Senator) proposed a compromise: The Compromise Tariff of 1833

    • The tariffs would be gradually lowered so that it'd match the level of the Tariff of 1816 by the year 1842

    • This law was passed, and South Carolina repealed its nullification

  • Calhoun got mad at Jackson & resigned in 1832

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Webster-Hayne Debate

  • Debate over power of states vs national gov

  • Robert Y Hayne (Senator from SC) believed each state was sovereign & could nullify any federal law within the state

  • Daniel Webster (Senator from MA) believed national gov has more power & must preserve the Union of the states

  • Webster gave the famous speech "Second Reply to Hayne"

    • Said that the Union is inseperable

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Removal of the Indians

Black Hawk War (1832)

Sauk and Fox Indians in Illinois region opposed white settlement. A rival tribe had signed a treaty, ceding land to the whites, but these tribes disapproved it. They named Black Hawk as their leader

Whites easily defeated the Indians, forced them to retreat. They captured Black Hawk, sent him to DC to meet Jackson

"Civilized" Tribes of the South

  • Unlike the north, the South actually had 5 tribes that built a stable society

    • Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw

    • Cherokee's even had their own constitution (1827)

    • Had stable agrarian economies

    • Many southerners believed they should stay

  • Congress passed Removal Act (1830), sending federal officials to negotiate treaties to move Indians west

    • Some weak tribes migrated in exchange for payments

    • Some stronger tribes resisted

  • Before the Removal Act of 1830, Georgia had already attempted to remove the Cherokees

    • Cherokees filed lawsuits, and in Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831) and Worcester v Georgia (1832), court ruled that Cherokees must migrate

  • Federal gov negotiated a treaty with a faction of the Cherokees

    • Cherokees would get $5 million in exchange for a reservation west of Mississippi River

    • This faction didn't even represent a majority of Cherokees, so most Cherokees refused to migrate

      • Jackson sent Gen. Winfield Scott to force the Cherokees to migrate

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Trail of Tears

  • About 1000 Cherokees migrated to a small reservation in NC

  • The remaining Cherokees (& other tribes) had to migrate to "Indian Territory"

    • Present-day Oklahoma

    • This migration occurred in winter of 1838 for the Cherokees during which 1000 of them died

    • Other tribes migrated earlier than that

    • This migration is called "Trail of Tears"

  • Whites believed this land to be the "Great American Desert"

    • Wanted the Indians to live in isolation

    • Believed they weren't making good use of the land & weren't civilized to be assimilated into US

    • There were forts in the reservation to keep Indians in and keep the whites out

    • The reservation was divided into small territories for each tribe

    • Indians were forced to live here, in an unfamiliar place w/ strange climate

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Seminole War (1835-1842)

In Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832), Seminoles agreed to migrate westward. However, a group of Seminoles under Chieftain Osceola refused to migrate, staged uprising in 1835

Federal troops fought the Seminoles, captured & killed Osceola, killed 1500 more Seminoles

Some Seminoles managed to survive. Federal gov abandoned the war in 1842. By then, most Seminoles were killed or forced to migrate, but some still remained

Bank War

Discontent Toward the Bank

  • Bank of the US was a really powerful institution

    • Instituted in 1816, set to expire in 1836

    • Led by Nicholas Biddle

    • Managed all the US's banks and money supply

    • Government had 1/5 stock in the bank

  • 2 factions hated the bank

    • "Soft money" faction hated that the bank controlled supply of paper money

    • "Hard money" faction hated that the bank issued paper money w/o backing it with gold/silver

    • Jackson supported the dissenters, hated that paper money caused him to decline in Financial Panic of 1797

  • Jackson mainly hated the bank as it was too powerful & favored the wealthy

    • Believed it supported Eastern business interests

      • Jackson was a Westerner who opposed this

    • Believed it could threaten his power & threaten the power of the "common man"

  • Biddle sought to gain support for the bank

    • Daniel Webster helped him & got Henry Clay to support him

  • Biddle applied to renew the bank charter in 1832, so the future of the bank was important in 1832 election

    • 1832 election was Andrew Jackson vs Henry Clay

      • Jackson opposed the bank, Clay supported it

    • Jackson won the election, so he allowed the bank's charter to expire w/o renewing it

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End of the Bank

  • Jackson won re-election in 1832, but he had to wait until 1836 for bank to expire

  • He sought to weaken the bank before 1836​​

    • Wanted to remove all government funds from the bank & put it in state banks called "pet banks"

    • Imposed Roger B Taney as Secretary of Treasury to do this

  • Bank's financial resources were strained because of the loss of government funds

    • Biddle thus had to raise interest rates on loans to compensate for the lost funds

      • Biddle knew this would cause a recession, believed recession would convince gov to renew bank's charter

    • Eventually, people protested the Bank's high interest rates, so the bank failed to get renewed

  • The Bank expired in 1836, but this caused a small recession

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Jackson's Reforms in Supreme Court

  • After winning Bank War, Jackson sought to maintain loyalty in the Supreme Court

    • Hated vigorous nationalism of Chief Justice John Marshall

    • When Marshall died (1835), Jackson put Roger B Taney (Secretary of Treasury) as Chief Justice

  • Taney's court rulings promoted more widening of opportunity instead of nationalism

    • Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge (1837)

      • Taney ruled that monopolies should be abolished and more people should get chances to conduct business in a certain area

    • Wanted widening opportunities for all instead of monopolies or aristocracies

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Post-Jackson Developments in Politics

Beliefs of Democrats

  • Supporters of Andrew Jackson

  • Believed in widening opportunity for white males

    • Opposed rapid industrial/commercial development as it hinders the widening of opportunity

      • Hated monopolies

    • Drew support for poor farmers in Northeast as well as farmers in the South & West

    • Drew support from Irish & German Catholics who wanted a peaceful society

Beliefs of Whigs

  • Whigs were opponents of Andrew Jackson

    • Name "Whig" comes from the British party that opposed the king

  • Believed in rapid industrial development

    • Wanted to slow western expansion as it could affect the stability of US

    • Wanted concentrated manufacturing power

    • Drew support from Northeast Merchants as well as wealthy Southern farmers

    • Drew support from Protestant Evangelicals due to their emphasis on human progress

  • Gained support through the Anti-Masonry Movement

    • A freemason, William Morgan, was murdered for publishing a book exposing masonry secrets​

    • It was believed that he was murdered by other Masons, which caused Anti-Mason protests

    • Many believed Jackson & Van Buren were Masons & started to oppose them, giving their support to Whigs

  • Didn't have one strong leader (like Jackson); Had 3 leaders instead

    • Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun formed "Great Triumvirate"

    • Each candidate was popular in some ways but had one controversial element making them unpopular