Unit 5: 1844-1877

Outline
General Timelines
 

Timeline #1: Mexican-American War & Pre-Civil War Developments (1836-1861)

Timeline #2: Civil War (1861-1865)

Timeline #3: Reconstruction (1863-1877)

General Maps
 

Map # 1: Conflict over Texas Boundary

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #1

Map # 2: Mexican-American War

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #2

Map # 3: End of Mexican-American War

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War.png

Map # 4: Manifest Destiny pre-1850

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #4

Map # 5: Post-1850 Compromises & Developments

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #5

Map # 6: Secession Timeline

Map # 7: Battles in Eastern Theater (1861-1863)

Map # 8: Battles in Western Theater (1861-1863)

Map # 9: Battles in Kansas-Missouri Region

Map # 10: Final Union Attack & Confederate Surrender (1864-1865)

APUSH Unit 5_ Civil War Map #4.png

Map # 11: Timeline of Readmission to Union

APUSH Unit 5_ Reconstruction Map #1.png
APUSH Unit 5_ Civil War Map #1.png
APUSH Unit 5_ Civil War Map #3.png
APUSH Unit 5_ Civil War Map #5.png
APUSH Unit 5_ Civil War Map #2.png
Course Content
 

Manifest Destiny:

 

Situation in Texas

Background Situation in Texas

  • Mexico inherited Texas after receiving independence from Spain in 1821

    • When US purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, US tried to claim TX but gave up in 1819 as Mexico refused to give it up

  • Mexico called for Americans to settle in Texas so they could help boost its economy

    • Passed a law in 1824 to give cheap land to Americans & 4-year tax exemption

    • Believed American presence in TX would create a buffer between Mexico & US

      • Didn't happen as the Americans remained loyal to the US & not Mexico

    • Thousands of Americans migrated there

      • Many Southerners migrated w/ their slaves to grow cotton

  • Americans sought to declare autonomy of TX

    • Stephen Austin established first government in TX in 1822

    • Austin and others created governments that tried to claim autonomy of Texas

      • In the Fredonian Rebellion (1826-1827), one gov tried to claim independence of TX, but the Mexican gov crushed the rebellion​

    • Mexico thus passed laws to prevent more immigration from the US

      • This failed, so they lifted the ban in 1833

    • 30,000 Americans (including slaves) were in TX by 1835

frontierfolk-scfamily.jpg

Independence of Texas (1836)

In 1830, Mexico made slavery illegal. Also, in 1833, Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became Mexican dictator & passed laws to limit state power & promote national power

Texans hated the ban on slavery & hated the autocratic rule of Santa Anna, so they got mad

Santa Anna imprisoned Stephen Austin for planning a revolt and Mexican troops came to Texas, so Texas declared independence in 1836

Gen. Sam Houston defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto (in Houston). He killed some Mexican army members & imprisoned Santa Anna (Apr 1836)

Mexican army attacked a Texan garrison at the Alamo in San Antonio (Mar 1836)

Mexican army attacked a Texan garrison at Goliad & killed its members (Oct 1835)

Santa Anna signed a treaty to give independence to Texas (1836)

Annexation of Texas (1845)

  • First Texan president, Sam Houston, sent agents to DC to petition for annexation

    • Northerners opposed it as they didn't want such a large slave state to join

    • Jackson didn't want more sectional conflict, and the next 2 presidents delayed looking into it

  • As it failed to get annexed by US, it sought to develop itself as a powerful independent nation

    • Negotiated trade treaties w/ Britain & France​

  • Question about Texas's annexation became important in election of 1844

    • Election of 1844 was Henry Clay vs James K Polk

      • Polk supported annexation; Clay didn't​

    • However, before leaving office, John Tyler (previous president) already presented to Congress a bill annexing Texas

      • Thus, Texas became a state in Feb 1845

yena-painting.jpg

Situation in Oregon, California, New Mexico

Situation in Oregon Region

  • Oregon territory includes present-day Oregon, Washington, parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and British Columbia (Canada)

    • US & Britain both claimed this land, agreed to "joint occupation" for 20 years starting 1818​

  • Population of the territory was small, mostly fur traders settled there

  • In 1831, 4 Nez Perce & Flathead Indians mysteriously appeared in St. Louis

    • Americans believed it was an invitation to expand westward into Oregon territory

  • Interest grew in the region for missionaries

    • Marcus Whitman & his wife Narcissa created an unsuccessful mission among Cayuse Indians

    • In 1840, more Americans settled in the region, causing a measles pandemic among the Indians

      • Pandemic killed many Cayuse Indians​

    • Cayuse Indians blamed Whitman for it, so they killed him, Narcissa, and other whites (1847)

  • Many Americans settled in the region, along the Pacific Coast

  • Polk wanted to annex Oregon Territory (1846)

    • Proposed a compromise to Britain: 49th parallel would divide US & British territory

    • British minister initially rejected it but later accepted it as he didn't want war

    • This border of 49th parallel exists today

ChamplainTradingwiththeIndians72dpi_1.jp

Westward Migration

  • Many people migrated from the Midwest region to the West

    • Most were adventurous young men to migrated for new opportunities

    • Sometimes whole families migrated to settle as laborers in the West

    • Some speculators came to take advantage of federal land grants

    • Some people (especially Mormons) went on religious missions

  • About 300,000 people migrated from 1840-1860

    • Most gathered in depots in Missouri or Iowa & loaded their stuff on chartered wagons

    • Traveled mostly via Oregon Trail

  • Migration was often slow

    • Wagons were really slow

    • Snow in the Rockies could delay the journey

    • Indians were helpful as guides, but some died in conflict with them

    • Some had conflict with travelmates

overview-Oregon-Trail.jpg

Situation in California & Gold Rush of 1849

  • US initially had some interests in annexing California

    • Many Mexicans & Indians lived there

    • Americans went there as whalers along the coast & as merchants to trade w/ Mexicans & Indians

    • Later, many Americans settled in Sacramento Valley (a rich agricultural region)

  • In Jan 1848, James Marshall found gold while working in John Sutter's sawmill in Sierra Nevadas

    • Wanted to prevent the news from spreading to prevent gold rush, but the news somehow spread

    • 100,000s of people came to find gold (these were known as the 49ers as it was 1849)

  • Many Chinese people migrated during the Gold Rush

    • Most got loans to migrate

    • Some came to find gold, others came to work in auxiliary tasks to support the gold miners

  • Some gold miners exploited the local Indians & made them perform indentured labor

  • Few people actually found gold, so most returned home unhappy, but others settled in California

miners-pan-and-dig-for-gold-in-alaska-2.

Situation in New Mexico

  • Spanish had long lived closely with the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico

  • After Mexican independence, Mexico invited Americans to settle in NM to develop its economy

    • Same situation as Texas

    • Many Americans settled in New Mexico, so it became more American than Mexican

    • There was a thriving commerce between Independence, MO, and Santa Fe, NM

      • This was called the Santa Fe Trail

  • Polk wanted to annex Mexico along with California

Keepers_of_The_SantaFe_Trail_1800-920x61

Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

Causes of Mexican-American War

  • Mexico challenged the border with Texas

    • Mexico believed the border was the Nueces river, but US believed it to be Rio Grande River

    • Nueces river was far north of Rio Grande

    • Rio Grande River border would add New Mexico territory to the US (which was what US wanted)

    • [Map is shown below]

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #1

President Polk dispatched Zachary Taylor to guard Nueces River. He also sent John Slidell to buy NM and CA from Mexico

Mexico refused Slidell's offer. Thus, Polk told Taylor to advance from Nueces river toward Rio Grande River

One Mexican army attacked Taylor's army, which marked the start of the war (Apr 1846)

  • When Polk sent Taylor to Texas, he also told the US Pacific naval squadron to occupy the ports in California in case Mexico declares war

    • The naval squadron also told American farmers in California to prepare for war

  • After the Mexican army attacked Taylor's army, Polk really quickly asked Congress to approve war

  • Lots of people opposed the war effort

    • Polk supported war as he wanted expansion

    • So many northerners didn't want to expand southward into potential slave territory

    • Many believed the war effort was useless & straining resources

    • Some believed it gave Polk too much power to invade any country he wants for no reason

    • Transcendentalist thinker Thoreau was briefly jailed for refusing to pay taxes

      • He hated that his taxes will finance the war

  • Those who supported war were really enthusiastic about it

    • Believed in gaining "All Mexico!"

      • Wanted to annex the entire Mexico

Battles of Mexican-American War

President Polk wanted Taylor to take over Northeast Mexico

Taylor took over Monterrey in Sep 1846

Mexicans negotiated an armistice & retreated. Polk believed Taylor couldn't take over Mexico City due to this armistice

Polk told Col. Stephen W Kearny to take over NM and CA. Kearny easily conquered Santa Fe in Summer of 1846

US navy in CA helped a group of US explorers in California (led by John C Frémont) lead the Bear Flag Revolt against Mexico (Jun 1846). American settlers in CA helped with this revolt

Kearny came to CA and joined the Bear Flag Revolt. He finished conquest of CA by Fall of 1846

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #2

End of Mexican-American War

Mexico refused to concede after losing CA and NM, so Gen. Winfield Scott launched a final campaign

Scott assembled an army of 14k soldiers and the navy transported it to Veracruz (in Mexico)

The army marched 260 miles to Mexico City (Sep 1847). Before seizing it, Mexico agreed to peace 

Here is a map of this part of the war:

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War.png
  • Polk send diplomat Nicholas Trist to Mexico City to negotiate peace treaty w/ Mexico (Feb 1848)

    • Known as Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

    • Mexico gave California, New Mexico, and Rio Grande Texas boundary to the US

    • US paid $15 million to Mexico for war reparations

  • Annexation of "All Mexico!" had failed

This map shows the Mexican cession of land as well as the state of Texas:

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #4

Post-War Sectional Conflict

Sectional Conflict over Former Mexican Territories

  • Rep David Wilmot (D-PA) created a bill called the Wilmot Proviso (Aug 1846)

    • Believed slavery should be prohibited in former Mexican territories​

    • Passed in House but not Senate

    • Debated on for years, a really important bill in the sectional conflict

  • Polk wanted to extend Missouri Compromise line to the West Coast

    • Also debated on, but not that popular

    • This issue was unresolved when Polk left office in 1849

  • Sectional conflict was an important issue in Election of 1848

    • Democrats had Lewis Cass (MI), Whigs had Zachary Taylor (LA) (the war hero)

    • Liberty Party (now called the Free-Soil party) had Martin van Buren

    • Taylor narrowly won, and Free-Soil party elected 10 seats to Congress

  • In Dec 1849, Taylor asked Congress to admit CA and NM as states

    • Believed the 2 states would choose to be either free or slave states after gaining statehood

    • Congress didn't to pass it as it feared both states might oppose slavery

  • The North had many more anti-slavery developments that the South hated

    • North passed laws that prohibit gov officials from returning runaway slaves to the South

      • Known as Fugitive Slave Law

    • South also hated that territory of Washington DC might abolish slavery

    • South hated that admission of the new territories as states would upset the 15/15 balance of free & slave states

aa_polk_wilmot_1_e.jpg

Compromise of 1850

California is admitted as a free state

The remainder of the former Mexican territories would be divided into Utah & New Mexico territories. They can choose whether slavery is allowed

Fugitive slave law reinstated in the North: Officials must return runaway slaves in the north to their masters in the South

Slave trade would be banned in DC, but slavery itself wouldn't be banned there

New border between New Mexico & Texas would be made

This map shows the state of CA, territories of NM and UT, and the new TX border as part of the Compromise of 1850:

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #5

Debate over Compromise of 1850

  • During winter of 1849-1850, Henry Clay led efforts to craft a Compromise

    • He created the Compromise in Jan 1850, with the 5 terms expressed in the section above

  • This was debated on extensively, in 2 phases

  • First phase: Clay, Calhoun, and Webster debated on it

    • These were the 3 old people in Congress

    • All 3 shared broad ideals of nationalism and sectionalism in support of Compromise

    • Calhoun even had more radical ideas

      • Wanted 2 presidents: one each for the South and the North

      • Believed North should stop attacking Southern slavery

      • Believed North & South should exist peacefully w/o attacking each other

    • Congress disapproved the compromise, which led to the 2nd phase of debate

    • Clay got sick, Calhoun died, and Webster was promoted, so all 3 were out of Congress

  • Second phase: Younger senators debated​

    • Believed more in boosting the economy than supporting personal liberty

749492368.jpg

Passing of Compromise of 1850

  • Pres. Taylor died in Jul 1850, so Millard Fillmore became president

    • He was more flexible in compromises​

  • Senator Stephen Douglas (D-IL) wanted to break up the "omnibus bill" (a bill with multiple parts)

    • Wanted Congress to vote on each part separately

  • In Sept 1850, Congress approved all 5 components, and Fillmore signed it

speech-features-United-States-Senate-Hen

Post-1850 Sectional Conflicts:

 

Developments in Franklin Pierce's Presidency

  • Election of 1852 was between Franklin Pierce (D) and Gen. Winfield Scott (W)

    • Whigs were divided among themselves as they struggled over the issue of slavery

    • Pierce won because Whigs were divided

  • Pierce struggled to enforce the fugitive slave law

    • Many northerners opposed it, so they organized mobs to prevent its enforcement

    • White southerners had to come to the north to recapture runaway slaves

  • Pierce was inspired by European liberal revolutions of 1848 to promote the "Young America Movement"

    • It was an artistic, cultural, and political movement to expand US influence

    • Pierce sought to conquer more territory

    • His envoys wrote the Ostend Manifesto, a document explaining how to seize Cuba

      • When this was leaked to the public, ​northerners hated it as they didn't want another slave state

    • Hawaii & Canada had also petitioned to join US, but that failed due to slavery issues

      • It would mess up North/South balance

  • Pierce also encountered sectional conflict w/ transcontinental railroad

    • To settle in the unorganized territory, there needs to be communication between East & West

      • A transcontinental railroad was needed

    • Location of transcontinental railroad provoked sectional conflict

      • Northerners wanted it to connect w/ Chicago

      • Southerners wanted it to connect Southern cities

    • His Sec. of War, Jefferson Davis, sent James Gadsden to buy a narrow strip of land from Mexico (just south of New Mexico)

      • This would allow for railroad construction between the Southern cities​

postage-stamp-Gadsden-Purchase.jpg

Situation in Kansas & Nebraska

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

  • Sen. Stephan A Douglas (D-IL) wanted to organize the territory west of Illinois

    • This was west of IL, MO, and IA, but east of the new Utah territory

    • Wanted to clear up the Indians from the area so he could build a railroad there

  • He proposed the territory of Nebraska (comprising present-day Nebraska & Kansas)

    • Southerners hated this they thought Nebraska would become a free state

  • In response to those concerns, Douglas divided the territory into 2

    • Lower part (Kansas) and Upper part (Nebraska)

    • Both territories would choose to be free or slave with popular sovereignty

      • Popular sovereignty: the residents vote on it

      • Nebraska would likely be free, Kansas would likely be slave​

    • This would repeal the Missouri Compromise line

  • This act, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, passed in 1854

  • The Republican party was created in 1854 for those who hated the Kansas-Nebraska Act

    • Both Democrats & Whigs who hated the bill joined the Republicans

    • The Whigs became super divided & ceased to exist by 1856

This map shows the Kansas & Nebraska territories (in the center of the map) after the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854):

APUSH Unit 5_ Causes of Civil War Map #5

Post-1854 Turmoil in Kansas

  • In 1855, people in Kansas elected the territorial legislature

    • Lots of pro-slavery people from Missouri settled in Kansas

      • This increased the pro-slavery votes

    • Thus, the legislature became majority pro-slavery

  • Anti-slavery people were outraged & set up their own constitutional convention

    • Created an anti-slavery government

    • Failed to achieve statehood as President Pierce denounced them

  • Pro-slavery people organized an army & sacked the anti-slavery buildings in Lawrence, KS

  • John Brown, an anti-slavery man, killed 5 pro-slavery people in one night (May 1856)

    • Known as Pottawatomie Massacre (1856)

    • He put their bodies on display to discourage pro-slavery people ​from entering Kansas

  • There continued to be lots of violence in Kansas

    • Kansas was known as "Bleeding Kansas"​

Marais-de-Cygnes-Massacre-Kansas-May-19-

Final Decision in Kansas

  • President James Buchanan (elected in 1856) sought to deal with the Kansas situation​

  • Kansas residents organized a constitutional convention to write their final state constitution

    • This convention would determine whether Kansas would be free or slave

    • Pro-slavery people were the majority because of gerrymandering

    • In 1857, at Lecompton, KS, the convention wrote a pro-slavery constitution

  • However, when territorial legislature (different from constitutional convention) was elected, anti-slavery people were the majority

    • Submitted pro-slavery Lecompton constitution to the Kansas residents, who voted against it

  • Buchanan still persuaded Congress to admit Kansas as a slave state, but it failed in the House

  • Congress approved a Compromise in April 1858

    • Pro-slavery Lecompton constitution would be presented again to Kansas voters

      • If approved, KS becomes slave state​

      • If not, statehood would be postponed

  • In the end, the pro-slavery constitution was voted against, and KS became free state in 1861

lecompton20constitution20hall.jpg

Developments in Buchanan's Presidency

Election of 1856 & Panic of 1857

  • In election of 1856, the issue of settlement in the unorganized territory was really important

    • Democrats chose James Buchanan

    • Republican party (a new party created in 1854) chose John C Fremont

    • Native American Party (Know-Nothings) chose Millard Fillmore

  • Buchanan narrowly won

    • Buchanan was the 2nd oldest president (after William Henry Harrison)

      • He was a bit indecisive & timid

  • There was a financial panic in 1857

    • Many lower class workers were affected; they switched to Republican party

Arguments For & Against Slavery

  • Northerners largely opposed slavery

    • Believed in "free soil" ideology​​

      • Believed in stopping the westward expansion of slavery

    • Also believed South promoted the "slave power conspiracy"

      • Believed South wanted to extend slavery north & threaten North's capitalism

  • As North sought to attack slavery, the South sought to protect it

    • Believed the growing cotton economy was crucial to economic success​

    • Believed slavery was good because slaves had a better life than industrial workers in north​

    • Believed slavery allowed whites to live a refined life

    • Believed blacks were biologically inferior

Burnside-enters-Knoxville-A7WX9R.jpg

Dred Scott v Sandford (1857)

  • One of the most controversial court decisions in history

  • Dred Scott was a Missouri slave who traveled to Wisconsin & Illinois (free territories) w/ his owner

    • When he returned to Missouri, he believed he was freed as he traveled through free territories

    • When his owner died, he sued the owner's widow for freedom

    • Lower courts made Scott free

    • However, the widow's brother, John Sanford, appealed to state courts, who reversed the decision

  • Scott then appealed to Supreme Court

    • Court misspelled Sanford as Sandford

    • Court was super divided on this issue

    • Roger Taney (chief justice) believed slaves were property & technically couldn't file a court case

    • He also b​elieved slaveowners can't be deprived of their property when entering a free state​

      • Thus, Missouri Compromise was technically unconstitutional

    • Court ruled that Scott remains in slavery as blacks weren't citizens & don't have the same privileges as whites

  • This shows that the federal court doesn't have the power to deal with such intimate issues

  • Republicans sought to reverse this decision

p-1439-001-22178_p1_2_w.jpg

John Brown's Raid at Harper's Ferry

John Brown (same person who sparked the uprising in Kansas) sought to invade the South

In 1859, he led a group of armed men to invade mountain fortress at Harpers Ferry, VA. Sought to initiate a slave uprising from there

He seized an arsenal, but US troops seized him & sentenced him to death. White southerners feared they wouldn't be safe due to constant uprisings

Emergence of Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln's Unsuccessful Senate Run (1858)

  • 1858 Senate election of IL was Stephen A Douglas (D) vs Abraham Lincoln (R)

  • Through Lincoln-Douglas debates, Lincoln gained lots of fame & prominence​

    • Their viewpoints are described below

Douglas:

Each state could decide its own fate for slavery (popular sovereignty)

US will be dominated by whites, and blacks won't be allowed citizenship

Lincoln:

Slavery should be confined to the South & shouldn't spread westward

Westward expansion of slavery decreases opportunities for white immigrants

  • In the end, Douglas was elected to Senate

  • Over the next few years, Democrats lost support in Northern cities & Republicans gained support

  • Lincoln became popular in IL and throughout the nation

Presidential Election of 1860

  • Democrats were divided by those who supported slavery & those who wanted popular sovereignty for slavery​

Democrats who believed in popular sovereignty nominated Stephen Douglas

Southern Democrats who wanted expansion of slavery nominated John C Breckinridge

Conservative ex-Whigs formed Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell

Republicans nominated Lincoln, promoted economic nationalism, believed slavery shouldn't expand

  • Lincoln appealed to the north by promoting economic nationalism

    • Believed the south was blocking the north's economic aspirations

    • Promoted Whig-like ideas: American system, internal improvements, transcontinental railroad

  • Lincoln wanted no slavery in the West, but he believed he doesn't have the power to regulate slavery in the territories

  • In the end, Lincoln was elected

    • Whites in the south believed their position in the US was hopeless as Lincoln was elected

      • They believed Lincoln was a sectional president & only served the interests of the North

      • Believed that if Lincoln wanted to stop westward expansion of slavery, pro-slavery South would be a minority in Congress

    • For these reasons, the South seceded soon after

Civil War:

 

Secession of the South & Start of War

Election of 1860 & Secession of Southern States

  • Election of 1860 had Abraham Lincoln as Republican candidate

    • Believed slavery should be confined to the South, didn't want slavery to expand westward

  • Southern slave states hated Lincoln's vision of America

    • Since Lincoln opposed slavery in the west, Southern states wouldn't get much influence​

    • Southern states planned to secede if Lincoln would win

  • In the end, Lincoln (R) won

  • Thus, Southern states sought to secede

    • South Carolina seceded first in Dec 1860; 6 other states seceded by Feb 1861

      • AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, TX (as well as SC) seceded​

      • Met in Montgomery, AL, to form Confederate States of America (Feb 1861)

  • Response from the North was confused

    • President Buchanan said no state can secede, but there was nothing stopping them​​

lincoln_360x450.jpg

Initial Clashes with Confederacy & Failure of Compromise

  • Confederacy sought to get weapons from all arsenals in their region

    • Sought to conquer Fort Sumter & Fort Pickens, 2 offshore forts in the Confederacy

    • Buchanan refused to surrender Fort Sumter to the Confederacy & sent an army there

      • Confederacy fired at Buchanan's army

  • Sen. John J Crittenden (KY) proposed the Crittenden Compromise:​

Fugitive slave law reinstated: Runaway slaves would be returned to south

Missouri Compromise line would expand to West Coast (slavery would be allowed south of the line)

All places with slavery currently can keep slavery

  • This compromise failed:

    • Republicans in Congress didn't want westward expansion of slavery​

  • In 1861, when Lincoln was inaugurated, he promoted the vision that the Union can't separate

    • Believed more in keeping the nation together than in preventing expansion of slavery

Battle of Fort Sumter (Apr 1861)

Major Robert Anderson (Union) was stationed at Fort Sumter. He was running low on supplies, so Lincoln quickly sent supplies to him

Gen. P G T Beauregard (Confederate) bombarded Fort Sumter (Apr 12-13, 1861)

Anderson (Union) surrendered on Apr 14. This was the start of the Civil War

Post-Fort Sumter Secession & Situation in Border States

  • After the Battle of Fort Sumter, 4 more slave states seceded & joined the Confederacy

    • VA, NC, TN, AR joined Confederacy

  • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, (& later West Virginia) were border states

    • They had slavery but supported the Union

    • Lincoln convinced these states not to secede

      • They had a high population, so the Union needed them

      • If Maryland joined Confederacy, Washington DC would be completely surrounded by Confederacy

Here is a map depicting the secession timeline:

APUSH Unit 5_ Civil War Map #1.png

Differences in Advantages in North & South

North:

Much larger population

More industrial capacity & weapons

Better transportation & communications systems

Divided opinions about war effort

South:

Much smaller population

 

Home field advantage (war was mostly fought in south)

More popular support for the war effort

Battles of the Civil War

First Battle of Bull Run (Jul 1861)

Union Gen. Irvin McDowell was stationed in Washington DC w/ 30k soldiers

Confederate Gen. P G T Beauregard was in Manassas (30 miles from DC)

Both armies went to creek of Bull Run & fought. Union forces dispersed the Confederacy, but Confederacy counterattacked

Union forces retreated as Gen. McDowell couldn't reorganize them. Showed that the Civil War would be much longer & not an easy Union victory

Creation of West Virginia

Union Gen. George McClellan went to Western Virginia to gain support of the people there

The people in western Virginia opposed secession & supported Gen. George McClellan

The people in this region created a new state called West Virginia, admitted to Union in 1863. It was a border state

Union Successes in the West in 1862

Union forces sought to seize control of Mississippi River

Union forces under David G Farragut went to Gulf of Mexico. They defeated Confederate fortifications at Mississippi River's mouth

They did a surprise attack on New Orleans from the south. Gained control of Port of New Orleans, closed it to Confederate trade (April 1862)

Confederates under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston made a defensive line from Fort Henry to Fort Donelson in Tennessee

Union Gen. Ulysses S Grant used ironclad ships to take Fort Henry via Tennessee River. He then took over Fort Donelson (Feb 1862)

He gained control of Tennessee River, forcing Confederates out of Kentucky & western half of Tennessee

Union Gen. Ulysses S Grant sought to conquer Shiloh, TN, so he could destroy Confederate railroad infrastructure

Grant marched w/ 40k men (after winning battles in Tennessee) to Shiloh. Confederate Gen. Johnston & Beauregard surprised him & forced him to retreat

Grant got 25k fresh troops and counterattacked, taking over Shiloh, TN, and Corinth, MS, a major railroad hub

Gen. Braxton Bragg replaced Johnston as Confederate General in West. He gathered forces in Chattanooga, TN, wanted to take over rest of Tennessee

Union forces led by Gen. William Rosecrans sought to take over Chattanooga 

Both forces met in Dec 1862 - Jan 1863 at Battle of Stones River. Confederates withdrew, so Union forces won

Union Failures in the East in 1862

Gen. George McClellan (Union) was commander of Northern forces. Brought 100k men via a roundabout to Richmond by sea

Gen. Thomas J (Stonewall) Jackson (Confederate) marched through Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, was coming toward DC

Lincoln sent 30k troops from DC to face off Stonewall Jackson. Jackson defeated Union army in Valley Campaigns of 1862

Gen. Joseph E Johnston led Confederacy to attack Gen. McClellan's Army outside Richmond

Union forces (under McClellan) partially lost in the Battle of Seven Pines (May 1862)

Robert E Lee replaced Johnston & Stonewall Jackson. He attacked McClellan's army in the Seven Days Battle (Jun 1862)

Robert E Lee attacked Pope's Army in 2nd Battle of Bull Run (Aug 1862) before McClellan got there. Lincoln recalled Pope & put McClellan in charge of all Union forces in north