Developments in South & Southeast Asia

Unit 1: c. 1200-1450

Main Ideas:

  • States in South & Southeast Asia remained stable based on their state religion and the Indian Ocean Trade Route

  • Indian cultural traditions & religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam) shaped Southeast Asian kingdoms

Northern India

 Delhi Sultanate: 1206-1526 

Key Ideas:

  • Islam as state religion → Unstable while ruling over Hindu-majority population

    • Struggled to maintain rule & convert local Hindus to Islam → Relied on alliances with local Hindu rulers → Very unstable

  • Could not benefit from Indian Ocean Trade Route

    • Largely economically isolated from South India

    • Economy didn't flourish as much since it wasn't on Indian Ocean Trade Route

Qutub Minar, a minaret built in 1192 by the 1st Delhi Sultan, before the Sultanate was established

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The tomb of Shams ud-Din Illtutmish, one of the 1st Delhi Sultans. Built in the 1200s

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Southern India

Chola Empire: 3rd century BCE - 1279 CE
Kingdom of Vijayanagara: 1336-1646 CE
 

Key Ideas:

  • Hinduism as state religion → Very stable since most of population was Hindu

    • Hindu caste system helped the region maintain social stability

    • Hindu temples were centers of society

  • Benefited significantly from Indian Ocean Trade Route

    • Allowed the region to economically and politically prosper​

Brihadisvara Temple, completed in 1010 CE, one of the main Chola Hindu temples still standing

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The chariot at Hampi, built in the 16th century. Hampi was one of the capitals of the Vijayanagara Empire

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Southeast Asia

 Kingdoms of Funan, Srivijaya, Malacca, and Angkor 

Key Ideas:

  • Indian cultural traditions shaped Southeast Asian Kingdoms

    • Funan adopted Indian administrative structure & the term raja for king

    • Angkor built Angkor Wat, a huge Hindu & Buddhist temple

    • Malacca adopted Islam

  • Southeast Asian Kingdoms profited from Indian Ocean Trade

    • Merchants passed through Southeast Asia en route from Indian Ocean to China

    • Malacca taxed trade through the Strait of Malacca

Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple built in 12th century by Kingdom of Angkor. Later became a Buddhist Temple

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The Chot Mat Tower, built in the 8th century CE in the Kingdom of Funan

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