Overview of European Kingdoms

Unit 3: c. 1450-1750

Kingdom of Spain

Formed in 1469 

Key Ideas:

Before 1469

Spain was divided into many kingdoms: Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal (all Christian), Granada (Muslim)

1469

King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile → They united their lands into a (mostly) unified Spain

1478

Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a program to suppress all non-Catholics

1492

Conquest of Granada: Ferdinand & Isabella conquered the last remaining Muslim Kingdom in Spain (Granada)

1556

King Charles V (ruler of Habsburg Kingdom) retires → His son, Philip II, inherits parts of Spain & Netherlands

1566-1648

Dutch Revolt: Calvinists in Low Countries oppose Philip II's Catholicism → Netherlands (north) gains independence; Belgium (south) remains in Spanish rule

1588

Spanish Armada: Philip II sends navy to England to convert England (which is Protestant) to Catholicism → He fails

Kingdom of France

Formed in 1453

Key Ideas:

1337-1453

Hundred Years' War: England vs France → France won → France started consolidating power after this victory

1516

Concordat of Bologna: Allowed French king to appoint church bishops in exchange for giving revenue to Pope

1559

King Henry II died, so his 3 sons took over and fought for control. One of the sons became King Henry III

1559-1572

Many French Calvinists (Huguenots) were in French countryside → Lots of fights between Catholics & Huguenots

1572

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: A marriage between a Catholic & Protestant in royal family → Deadly

1589

Henry III died → Henry of Navarre (groom in St. Bartholomew's Day wedding) became King Henry IV

1598

Edict of Nantes: Henry IV allowed Huguenots to practice their religion in 150 French cities

1618-1648

30 Years' War: Cardinal Richelieu was chief advisor to King Louis XIII & helped defeat Catholic Habsburgs (Austria)

1643-1715

Louis XIV's Reign: "Sun King"; built Palace of Versailles; Advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert increased French size

King Louis XIV, one of the most absolutist French kings

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Palace of Versailles, a huge palace built by Louis XIV to demonstrate his glory and power

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Kingdom of England

Formed in 10th century 

Key Ideas:

1534

King Henry XIV created the Church of England (Anglican Church)

1553-1558

Queen Mary's reign: Was Catholic & persecuted Protestants → Many Protestants exiled in mainland Europe

1558-1603

Queen Elizabeth's reign: Was Protestant → Protestant exilees returned & created Puritan church ("purifying" Anglicanism of its Catholic elements)

1603-1625

James I's reign: Was Catholic & claimed absolute power → Hated parliament

1625-1649

Charles I's reign: Was Catholic; Claimed absolute power → Rarely summoned his majority-Puritan Parliament

1642-1649

English Civil War: Charles I fought Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell) → Cromwell won & became king → Gave Parliament more power

1660

Stuart Restoration: Cromwell died → Charles II became king & restored King's absolute authority

1685-1688

James II's reign: Was Catholic → Promoted Catholicism in gov & schools

1688-1689

Glorious Revolution:Parliament opposed James II's Catholic policies → Imposed William & Mary as rulers

Holy Roman Empire

Formed in 800 

Key Ideas:

Before 1555

Made up of hundreds of small nation-states & very decentralized

1555

Peace of Augsburg: Emperor Charles V allowed each nation-state to choose Catholicism or Lutheranism

1618-1648

Thirty Years' War: A huge war between Catholics & Protestants in the empire

1648

Peace of Westphalia: Allowed each nation-state to choose Catholicism, Lutheranism, or Calvinism

Tsardom of Russia

Formed in 1480 

Key Ideas:

Before 1480

Russia was under control of the Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde

1480

Tsar Ivan III (Ivan the Great) declared independence from Mongols → Established Russian Tsardom

1533-1584

Reign of Ivan IV ("the terrible"): Had imperial expansion but killed a lot of dissidents (including his son)

1606-1613

Time of Troubles: Many monarchs were competing for power

1613

Michael Romanov became tsar, starting the Romanov Dynasty (ending in 1917)

1682-1725

Reign of Peter I ("the great"): Reformed Russia according to Western standards (military, culture, dress, etc.)

1762-1796

Reign of Catherine I ("the great"): Used Enlightenment principles in government → Less strict governance

Catherine II ("the great"), who used Enlightenment principles in governance

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The Winter Palace at St. Petersburg, the official residence of Russian emperors after Peter the Great's reign

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Habsburg Empire

Formed in 1526 

Key Ideas:

Early 1500s - 1556

Charles V was emperor of huge Habsburg domain (Spain, Sicily, Netherlands, Germany, etc.)

1556

Charles V retired → His son (Philip II) got Spain, Netherlands, and Sicily; His brother (Ferdinand I) got Austria