Overview of European Kingdoms

Unit 3: c. 1450-1750

Kingdom of Spain

Formed in 1469 

Key Ideas:

Before 1469

Spain was divided into many kingdoms: Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal (all Christian), Granada (Muslim)

1469

King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile → They united their lands into a (mostly) unified Spain

1478

Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a program to suppress all non-Catholics

1492

Conquest of Granada: Ferdinand & Isabella conquered the last remaining Muslim Kingdom in Spain (Granada)

1556

King Charles V (ruler of Habsburg Kingdom) retires → His son, Philip II, inherits parts of Spain & Netherlands

1566-1648

Dutch Revolt: Calvinists in Low Countries oppose Philip II's Catholicism → Netherlands (north) gains independence; Belgium (south) remains in Spanish rule

1588

Spanish Armada: Philip II sends navy to England to convert England (which is Protestant) to Catholicism → He fails

Kingdom of France

Formed in 1453

Key Ideas:

1337-1453

Hundred Years' War: England vs France → France won → France started consolidating power after this victory

1516

Concordat of Bologna: Allowed French king to appoint church bishops in exchange for giving revenue to Pope

1559

King Henry II died, so his 3 sons took over and fought for control. One of the sons became King Henry III

1559-1572

Many French Calvinists (Huguenots) were in French countryside → Lots of fights between Catholics & Huguenots

1572

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: A marriage between a Catholic & Protestant in royal family → Deadly

1589

Henry III died → Henry of Navarre (groom in St. Bartholomew's Day wedding) became King Henry IV

1598

Edict of Nantes: Henry IV allowed Huguenots to practice their religion in 150 French cities

1618-1648

30 Years' War: Cardinal Richelieu was chief advisor to King Louis XIII & helped defeat Catholic Habsburgs (Austria)

1643-1715

Louis XIV's Reign: "Sun King"; built Palace of Versailles; Advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert increased French size

King Louis XIV, one of the most absolutist French kings

Palace of Versailles, a huge palace built by Louis XIV to demonstrate his glory and power

Kingdom of England

Formed in 10th century 

Key Ideas:

1534

King Henry XIV created the Church of England (Anglican Church)

1553-1558

Queen Mary's reign: Was Catholic & persecuted Protestants → Many Protestants exiled in mainland Europe

1558-1603

Queen Elizabeth's reign: Was Protestant → Protestant exilees returned & created Puritan church ("purifying" Anglicanism of its Catholic elements)

1603-1625

James I's reign: Was Catholic & claimed absolute power → Hated parliament

1625-1649

Charles I's reign: Was Catholic; Claimed absolute power → Rarely summoned his majority-Puritan Parliament

1642-1649

English Civil War: Charles I fought Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell) → Cromwell won & became king → Gave Parliament more power

1660

Stuart Restoration: Cromwell died → Charles II became king & restored King's absolute authority

1685-1688

James II's reign: Was Catholic → Promoted Catholicism in gov & schools

1688-1689

Glorious Revolution:Parliament opposed James II's Catholic policies → Imposed William & Mary as rulers

Holy Roman Empire

Formed in 800 

Key Ideas:

Before 1555

Made up of hundreds of small nation-states & very decentralized

1555

Peace of Augsburg: Emperor Charles V allowed each nation-state to choose Catholicism or Lutheranism

1618-1648

Thirty Years' War: A huge war between Catholics & Protestants in the empire

1648

Peace of Westphalia: Allowed each nation-state to choose Catholicism, Lutheranism, or Calvinism

Tsardom of Russia

Formed in 1480 

Key Ideas:

Before 1480

Russia was under control of the Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde

1480

Tsar Ivan III (Ivan the Great) declared independence from Mongols → Established Russian Tsardom

1533-1584

Reign of Ivan IV ("the terrible"): Had imperial expansion but killed a lot of dissidents (including his son)

1606-1613

Time of Troubles: Many monarchs were competing for power

1613

Michael Romanov became tsar, starting the Romanov Dynasty (ending in 1917)

1682-1725

Reign of Peter I ("the great"): Reformed Russia according to Western standards (military, culture, dress, etc.)

1762-1796

Reign of Catherine I ("the great"): Used Enlightenment principles in government → Less strict governance

Catherine II ("the great"), who used Enlightenment principles in governance

The Winter Palace at St. Petersburg, the official residence of Russian emperors after Peter the Great's reign

Habsburg Empire

Formed in 1526 

Key Ideas:

Early 1500s - 1556

Charles V was emperor of huge Habsburg domain (Spain, Sicily, Netherlands, Germany, etc.)

1556

Charles V retired → His son (Philip II) got Spain, Netherlands, and Sicily; His brother (Ferdinand I) got Austria