Asia from 1450-present

All Present-day Asian Nations except Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, Oman, Russia

Exploration to Asia

  • Portugal started European exploration

    • It's unique location (facing westward into Atlantic & blocked eastward by Spain) made it necessary for Portuguese to expand westward

    • Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator) sponsored voyages down the African west coast

    • Portuguese built trading posts on African west coast & forged alliances with African kingdoms

    • Conquered many African islands in the Atlantic

    • Bartholomew Diaz sailed around Southern Tip of Africa in 1488 but returned immediately to Portugal

    • In 1497, Vasco da Gama sailed around the Southern Tip of Africa to India & came back to Portugal with lots of spices

  • Spain wanted a sea route to Maluku spice islands of Southeast Asia, so they employed Ferdinand Magellan

    • In 1519, Magellan sailed through a strait in the tip of South America (now named after him) & died after a physical argument in the Philippines​

    • His crew returned to Spain in 1522

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Dutch Preeminence in late 1500s

  • Dutch took over Portuguese prestige in Indian Ocean​

    • Dutch ship (fluyt) was faster than Portuguese caravel, so Dutch were able to take over Portuguese ports

    • Dutch East India Company (VOC) was established in 1602

      • Got trading concessions in Indonesia in exchange for assisting local Indonesian kings in shirmishes​

      • Expelled Portuguese from Ceylon & other islands

      • Dominated spice trade

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Japanese Industrialization & Meiji Restoration

  • Japan industrialized after Meiji Restoration (1868)

    • In 1853, US Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to Edo (Tokyo) with a gunboat

    • Japan realized that they were behind in technology upon seeing the gunboat

    • In 1868, little boy named Meiji took power (Meiji Restoration), started industrializing

      • Looked to Western nations for help

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European Imperialism in Asia

  • Dutch established colony in East Indies

    • Later brought most of Malay Peninsula under its control

  • French conquered Indochina (present-day Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam)

  • Russia conquered Muslim Caucasus & Central Asia,. reached Afghan border in 1885

  • US got Philippines from Spain in 1898 after Spanish-Cuban-American war but later gave it independence

  • British got India & Burma

    • In India, British East India Company ruled from 1600-1858

    • After a revolt in 1858, British established direct rule from the British crown

    • British educated the Indians & employed some as regional governors & lesser ministers

    • As Indians were educated in British ideals, they learned Enlightenment ideals of freedom & self-rule

      • The Indian National Congress (founded 1885) sought independence from Britain

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Situation in China & Japan

  • Britain sparked Opium Wars with China

    • Britain grew lots of Opium in India & smuggled it into China to trade​

    • Opium generated lots of revenue as Chinese were addicted to it

    • Qing government stopped Opium trade due to the social problems it caused, sparking First Opium War (1839-1842)​​

      • British gunboats attacked Chinese in Grand Canal​

      • In Treaty of Nanking (1842), Britain won rights to 4 trading cities & got rights to Hong Kong

    • Qing still had tensions with Britain, sparking the Second Opium War (1856-1860)

      • British & French troops occupied Beijing & burned the emperor's summer palace

      • European merchants won more rights in China

  • End of Qing Dynasty in China​

    • Qing state was falling due to foreign aggression, but effective leadership still kept it intact​

    • Qing state launched many reform movements to put Western-style administration & factories, but they all failed

    • Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901) was an anti-foreign rebellion

      • Rebels attacked foreigners & burned foreign embassies

      • Foreigners eventually ended the rebellion & forced Chinese to pay reparations

    • All of these caused the Qing state to collapse

    • Qing state fell in 1912 after a revolution

  • Japanese Imperialism

    • Japan was forced to sign unequal treaties by foreigners

      • Unequal treaty is a treaty where one side benefits a lot at the expense of the other side

    • After Meiji Restoration (1868), Japan started industrializing

    • Japan wanted to get rid of its unequal treaties, so it started conquering other lands

      • Japan conquered Korea, but the Chinese sought to defend it, sparking Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

        • Japan won the war, gaining Korea

      • Japan later expanded into Manchuria, but Russia sought to expand into Manchuria & Korea

        • They fought the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905), which Japan won

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Japan's Entry into World War 1

Japan wanted to remove German ships from East Asian waters. Japan also wanted to annex German-controlled Jiaozhou peninsula

Germany refused to comply

Japan declared war on Germany, joined Allies in August 1914. Took over German-controlled islands in Pacific

Japanese Entry into War & Pearl Harbor Attack (1941)

German military victories inspired Japan

Japan conquered many places in Southeast Asia, including French Indochina

US imposed oil embargo on Japan to protect the French. Germany, Britain, Dutch supported embargo

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US allied with Britain & USSR (Allies powers) against Germany, Italy, & Japan (Axis powers)

Germany & Italy responded by declaring war on US

Japan renounced tripartite pact (with Germany & Italy) and attacked Pearl Harbor in US (1941)

Korean War (1950-1953)

After WW2, US & USSR divided Korea into Communist North Korea (DPRK) & Democratic South Korea (ROK). US & USSR armed their Korean counterparts

DPRK pushed southward, attacked ROK & captured capital of Seoul (1950)

US & other NATO states helped ROK push back DPRK & capture Pyongyang

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ROK & DPRK agreed to ceasefire in 1953

China & USSR helped DPRK push back ROK to original border

Vietnam War (1954-1976)

After Vietnamese independence from France (1954), Geneva Accord (1954) decided that Vietnam would be divided in Communist north & nationalist South

US president Dwight D. Eisenhower wanted entire Vietnam to be nationalist, so he provided US troops & aid to the South

Later US presidents (JFK & Lyndon B. Johnson) increased US aid in Vietnam

In 1976, North communists invaded the south. US refused to come help the south. South was forced to accept Unified Communist Vietnam

Richard Nixon wanted to withdraw US from war. Achieved peace with North that divided Vietnam into 2 (same as before the war)

Many US college students protested US involvement in the war as they feared being drafted into war

Decolonization of Asia

  • Indonesia achieved independence from Dutch in 1949

    • After Japanese took Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) from the Dutch, Dutch took it back in 1945

    • Dutch wanted to take advantage of its rubber to support economic recovery in Netherlands

    • Indonesians later sought independence & won in 1949 after a guerilla war

  • France also retook French Indochina after Japanese lost control of them

    • Vietnam declared independence & was divided into communist north & nationalist south

      • US provided aid to nationalist south

      • After Vietnam War, communist government reunified Vietnam

    • Laos & Cambodia got independence under non-communist governments

  • In British India, Hindus & Muslims didn't want to live in the same country

    • Muslims feared that a unified India would still give them repression from Hindus​

    • Muslims created Pakistan, a muslim state

    • Present-day India became a secular state, mostly Hindus

  • China had a civil war between nationalists & communists

    • Nationalists organized Guomindang (led by Sun Yatsen & later by Jiang Jeishi)​

    • Communists were led by Mao Zedong

    • Communists were more organized & more powerful & forced Guomindang into exile to Taiwan

    • Communists initiated Stalin-style repressions & had economic policies in favor of industry

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