British Isles from 1450-present

Present-day Britain & Ireland

Creation of English Monarchy

During reign of Henry IV, aristocrats in government fought for power. Henry VI took power later, which weakened power of monarchy

Edward IV of York helped reconstruct the English monarchy. He used methods suggested by Machiavelli in The Prince (cruelty, wisdom, etc.). 

Henry VII distrusted nobles & kept small landowners in government positions

Creation of Anglican Church

  • King Henry VIII created Church of England

    • Was married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of rulers of Spain

    • Catherine was the widow of Henry VIII's brother, but their marriage was against Christian law

    • Henry VIII wanted a divorce as he had no male child with Catherine

      • Henry VIII wanted to marry Anne Boleyn​

    • Catherine's nephew, Charles V (Habsburg ruler), besieged Rome & kept Pope Clement VII as a prisoner, but Charles V disapproved the divorce

    • Thus, Henry VIII proclaimed autonomy from papal authority & created Anglican Church

      • Had some Catholic elements like ornate ceremonies, hierarchical clergy, but was mostly Protestant​

      • Confiscated property of monasteries & distributed them to upper class

    • Irish were Catholic & England had some rule over Ireland

      • Irish Catholics revolted, but English confiscated their land & forced them to convert

    • Thomas Cranmer (archbishop of Canterbury) wrote Book of Common Prayer (1549), which became official book of Anglican Church


Creation of Puritan Church & Post-Anglican England

After King Henry VIII's death, Mary of Tudor (Henry VIII's daughter with Catherine of Aragon) took power in England

Mary of Tudor married a Catholic, so Anglicans went to exile in mainland Europe

Other Anglicans in England assassinated Mary of Tudor

Elizabeth altered the Anglican doctrine to something between Puritan & Catholic ideologies, but it was more Protestant than before

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Anglicans in exile came back to England, created Puritan church (wanted to purify Anglicanism of all its Catholic elements)

Elizabeth (King Henry VIII's daughter with his other wife) took over & became monarch

Creation of Presbyterianism

  • Scotland created Presbyterian Church, modeled on Calvinism

    • Many Scottish nobles supported Protestantism while the king & queen were Catholic

    • Scottish man John Knox convinced Scottish Parliament to abandon papal authority

      • Wanted religious leadership of a council of ministers (known as Presbyters)

    • Created Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which was Calvinist & had a simple doctrine


List of Explorers



Year of Journey


John Cabot



Sailed for England, arrived in present-day New Foundland. 

Sir Francis Drake



First Englishman to circumnavigate the world. Discovered Tierra del Fuego (tip of South America). Disrupted Spanish Armada. 

English Colonialism in the Americas

  • English established many colonies in present-day US

    • First was Roanoke, established in 1585

      • It's settlers lost contact with Britain

    • Virginia was founded in Jamestown in 1607

    • Plymouth was founded by pilgrims on Mayflower 1620

    • Puritans settled in Massachusetts in 1630

    • Catholics settled in Maryland in 1632

    • Quakers settled in Pennsylvania in 1681

    • Mostly wanted to avoid religious persecution in England

    • Mostly governed by local councils as opposed to direct governance by English crown


Slave Trade

Triangular Trade


Raw materials cultivated by slaves


Manufactured goods 

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Slave Treatment in the Americas

  • Europeans allied with African kingdoms to get slaves

    • African kingdoms would raid other kingdoms to capture slaves and would receive guns from Europeans

    • African kingdoms would use these guns to capture more slaves & would then acquire more guns from Europeans

    • The cycle is endless, which caused certain African kingdoms to become super powerful by acquiring guns

  • Slaves first had to travel the middle passage from Africa to Americas

    • Hundreds of slaves crammed into one deck

    • 25% of slaves died in this passage

    • Sick slaves would be thrown overboard to prevent the spread of disease on board

  • In Americas, slaves were forced to do harsh work

    • Often whipped or beaten for working poorly

    • Mortality was high, which caused a greater demand for new slaves from Africa

  • In the Americas, slaves often harmonized their culture with American culture

    • They harmonized African religion with Christianity

    • Harmonized rituals & dances from different parts of Africa among all the slaves they met

  • Ideas about race helped justify slavery

    • Europeans regarded Africans as racially inferior to Europeans, which allowed them to enslave them​

    • Michel de Montaigne & William Shakespeare wrote about topics related to racism

  • Slaves cultivated sugar & other cash crops in Americas

    • Slaves cultivated sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice, cotton in Americas, which were all sent to Europe

    • In Europe, some of these were used to make manufactured goods

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Commercial Revolution

  • Mercantilist principles developed in Europe

    • Mercantilism is the idea that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world

    • The wealth in the world is measured in gold, and Europeans want a higher share of this wealth

  • Joint-stock companies emerged

    • Many merchants would pool their resources to finance enormous trading expeditions to yield huge profits

    • All merchants would share the profits & losses

    • Successful voyages would yield huge profits

    • European governments adopted laws in favor of these merchants

    • Dutch VOC & British East India Company yielded huge profits from trade with India & Indonesia



Origins of English Civil War

  • When Elizabeth I took over English crown in 1588, she didn't give anyone else power

    • She didn't marry, so she didn't have an heir to the throne​

  • After Elizabeth I, James I took over, then Charles I

    • Both James I & Charles I believed in "divine right" of kings

      • Believed they had absolute authority & god gave them right to rule

    • Both didn't give parliament any power

    • After tensions from 30 Years' war, Charles I didn't summon Parliament after 1629

  • There were also religious tensions among monarchs & Parliament

    • In 1534, King Henry VIII established Anglican Church

    • Puritans (devout Protestants) wanted to purify Anglicanism of all its Catholic elements

    • Most members of Parliament were Puritans

  • Charles I made religious tensions worse

    • Charles I married a Catholic princess

    • He praised Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud)

    • Laud attempted to impose a new Anglican prayer book with some Catholic elements

      • Scottish Presbyterians (Protestant) rejected these teachings


English Civil War (1642-1649)

Presbyterians in Scotland revolted against Catholic policies of Charles I

Charles I levied random taxes to raise money to crush the rebellion. He also called Parliament in 1640 (first time since 1629) to discuss how to crush the revolt

Parliament enacted laws to limit the power of the king to give more power to Parliament. Restored some Anglican ideals. Called "Long Parliament" as it met from 1640-1660

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Parliament refused to help Charles I fight the rebellion because Charles I repealed the laws meant to limit his power

Charles I needed money from Parliament to fight the rebellion. However, Charles I had repealed some of the laws made in the "Long Parliament" meant to limit his power

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Irish Catholics resented Anglican ideals that were reinstated in the "Long Parliament." They mounted Irish Rebellion of 1641

Charles I formed an army to attack some Parliament members. Parliament thus formed an army (New Model Army) under Oliver Cromwell

Parliament's army defeated Charles's army in many battles in 1645. Cromwell captured Charles I in 1647

Oliver Cromwell (Puritan) took over English crown in 1649. Gave power to Parliament, banned Catholicism

Stuart Restoration (1660)

Oliver Cromwell died

Charles II took over & restored the monarchy (less power to Parliament) & restored Anglicanism

Glorious Revolution (1689)

Charles II died (1685)

James II took over. He was Catholic & promoted Catholicism (appointed Catholics in government, built Catholic schools, etc.)

Parliament & Anglican people hated Catholic ideals of James II, so they put his daughter Mary & her husband William in power

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William & Mary ended "divine right" of kings. Signed Bill of Rights, giving more power to Parliament. Still persecuted Catholics.  Developed cabinet system to oversee Parliament. This was a constitutional monarchy

Many supporters of James II, mostly Catholics, mounted rebellions. William & Mary crushed all of these

18th Century European Society:

18th Century Economics & Demographics

18th Century Agriculture

  • The open-field system was widely used

    • Farmers would divide fields into 3 plots & only cultivate on 2 plots to allow the 3rd plot to replenish its nutrients

    • American food crops (e.g. Potatoes) would replenish soil while being cultivated, allowing for more food

    • More food allowed for more hay & more animals, which allowed for more meat, dairy, and livestock to pull heavy ploughs

  • Idea of enclosure developed

    • Peasants wanted their own individual plots instead of a shared plot

    • Some peasants hated this due to the small amount of land received

    • Some peasants wanted this as they could experiment with new scientific methods of increasing crop yields

  • Netherlands & Britain led agricultural innovation

    • Netherlands had high population density, so it needed to maximize its crop yield

    • Netherlands developed irrigation techniques, that were later brought to Britain & the rest of Europe


Industrious Revolution (Putting-out System)

  • Industrious Revolution refers to a transition into something called the putting-out system

    • A system where urban merchants would give raw materials to rural workers to make textiles

    • The rural workers would give the finished textiles to urban merchants for a small wage

  • Life of rural workers was hard during this time

    • Wages were so low that rural workers had to constantly work

    • Punishments for low-quality work or stealing a bit of yarn were severe

  • This revolution led to more demand for textiles

    • People had a bit more income due to working harder & employing more family members​

    • Extra income not used for food was used for buying more textiles

  • Transformed family relations in rural households

    • Males would often do weaving while women & children would do spinning

    • One cotton weaver needed to be complemented by 4-5 cotton spinners


18th Century Population Patterns

  • Previously, population growth was largely stable

    • Population was dense, so there was little space to accommodate for more people

    • Population grew a little each year, but other factors caused it to decline & stabilize

      • Famine, war, and disease were the limiting factors in population growth​

  • In late 1700s & 1800s, population started to grow again

    • Growth of rural industry allowed rural women to have more children​

    • Improvements in sewage & infrastructure limited spread of disease

    • Inoculation against smallpox helped reduce spread of smallpox

    • American food crops (especially potatoes) helped increase food supply


18th Century Economics & Adam Smith

  • Previously, merchant guilds were really common

    • Guilds were groups of merchants specializing in a certain trade

    • Guilds would set prices, care for each other in time of sickness, collaborate together on crafts

    • Often restricted membership to skilled people & had a membership fee

  • Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, believed in abolishing guilds

    • He advocated for free-market economics, where people pursue their own interests without any tariffs & trade barriers

    • Believed guilds restrict people who aren't build members from conducting business

    • Believed government should not restrict trade

  • Slowly, due to Adam Smith's ideology, guilds started disappearing


18th Century Society, Culture, & Art

Nuclear Family & Children's Roles

  • The idea of a nuclear family developed as children became more autonomous from their parents

    • Nuclear family is when only children & parents live in a household, no grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc.

    • People married late as they needed enough money to support children

    • Some peasants waited for their fathers' death so they could inherit the land

    • People had more autonomy from their parents, so they could choose their marriage partner, often leading to premarital sex

    • Premarital sex led to illegitimate births due to the lack of reliable contraception

      • Sometimes these were illegal or punishable in rural villages

      • Many of these were kept in orphanages

  • Children often did some household work before joining the urban trades

    • Often did weaving/spinning at home

    • Later did apprenticeships in merchant guilds in certain crafts

  • Same-sex relations & prostitution became common

    • Prostitution & brothels were common, & some women earned a living this way

      • These were illegal, so police would shut these down if caught​

    • Same-sex relations became common even though the Bible prohibited it

      • Same-sex subculture for men became common in urban centers

  • Views toward children changed significantly

    • Before, children were not cared much about due to their high mortality rate​

    • Enlightenment thought taught that parents should have more tenderness & love toward their children

    • Women would often breastfeed their children for 2-3 years

    • Sometimes, urban women would send their children to rural wet-nurses, who would breastfeed their children for them for 2-3 years

    • Many children received an education, especially religious education


Leisure Activities & Religious Beliefs

  • People read more books as literacy increased

    • Some pamphlets, called chapbooks, talked about religious stories

    • Other books were about comedy & other subjects

  • Other recreational activities were really common

    • Rural families often sang songs & danced around a fireplace

    • Urban people would go to festivals and drink, see acrobats, music, etc.

  • New foods & more income led to a consumer revolution

    • American food crops enriched the diets of peasants​

    • Peasants used milk to make cheese & butter to sell in the market

    • Wealthy people ate meat & fish

    • More people bought textiles & clothing as it became cheaper & income increased

    • Infrastructure in the house improved

    • Hygienic standards also improved

      • Public baths, streets, etc. were all cleaner

  • Religion became the center of society

    • Local parish churches held many celebrations & were centers of towns​

    • State often had more power over the church

    • Catholic monarchs gained power, weakening the papal authority

    • Protestant Revival was where protestants emphasized prayer & devotion to god

    • Catholicism gained followers as Jesuits preached devoutly & Catholic churches became important centers of society

    • Some rural villages marginally believed in Christianity & held some pagan beliefs


Developments in Medicinal Practices

  • More skilled physicians developed

    • Previously, physicians believed sicknesses were results of the devil

    • Now, physicians were skilled & trained & actually took their job seriously

  • Improvements in surgery also developed

    • Many surgeons were trained on the battlefield & often burned the flesh above the wound to lower the chance of death

    • Now, surgeons actually took their job seriously

    • However, painkillers didn't exist, so many people died in shock from surgeries

    • Also, surgeries were unsanitary as no knowledge of bacteria or infections existed

  • Midwives, women that assist in childbirth, were common as well

    • People later started to question their usefulness, leading to a slight decline in their numbers​

  • In 1796, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for preventing smallpox

    • He inoculated patients with cowpox to prevent smallpox



  • Romanticism was an artistic & literary movement meant to undo the changes made by the Enlightenment

    • Enlightenment was more literal & rational, while Romanticism was more supernatural & figurative​

    • Enlightenment was more secular, while romanticism was often religious

    • Enlightenment was more rational, while romanticism was more emotional

  • Romantic art often displayed excess emotion & love

    • Artists would display their skills with lots of emotion & ​talent

    • Often meant to appeal to people's emotions & take people on an adventure

  • Romantic literature depicted supernatural subjects & exotic settings

    • Often used by nations to ​depict national history in an exuberant & exotic way

  • Romantic music appealed to our senses & emotions

    • Adding more instruments to the orchestra created more musical landscapes that evoke our emotions

    • Music became more sublime

    • Music also was used outside of church services


Seven Years' War & Rise of British Power

  • Britain took power away from Dutch, French, and Spanish in late 1600s & early 1700s

    • Oliver Cromwell issued Navigation Acts (1651): All British imports must come on British ships

      • This hurt Dutch shipping, and the 3 Anglo-Dutch wars that followed further hurt the Dutch's power

    • Britain built its navy & sought to compete with France & Spain​​

      • After War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), Britain won many territories owned by France & Spain (including many in the New World)

    • All of these gave Britain more power than other European nations

  • The 7 Years' War (1756-1763) further increased British power

    • It started in Austria when Prussian King Frederick II invaded Austria

    • Britain allied with Prussia against France, Austria, and Russia

    • 7 Years' War was also fought in the Americas between Britain & France, known as the French and Indian War (1754-1763)

    • Britain won both wars, giving it more power over France in colonial ventures


Industrial Revolution:

Start of Industrial Revolution

Britain Takes the Lead

Why did the British lead the Industrial Revolution?
  • Lots of water access, good for water wheels & transporting resources

  • Had lots of natural resources, like coal

  • Had a central bank that could finance development of industrial capital

  • People had higher wages that they used to purchase industrial goods

  • British farming was really efficient, so more people could work in the cities instead of on the farms

  • Britain became wealthy by controlling trade among its colonies

  • Due to British lead, British government banned the export of industrial technology to maintain British economic dominance

Hover for the answer

First Industrial Revolution (1760-1830)

Flying Shuttle

Invented by John Kay (1733), used to speed up cotton weaving

Spinning Jenny

Invented by James Hargreaves (1764), used to spin cotton

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Water Frame

Invented by Paul Arkwright in 1768, uses water power to spin cotton

Spinning Mule

Invented by Samuel Crompton in 1779, allowed for large-scale spinning of thread

Interchangeable Parts

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1798, a concept that multiple factory workers can make individual parts of an item & join them together

Steam Engine

Invented by Thomas Newcomer, James Watt improved it in 1769. Uses burned coal to generate steam to turn a wheel and generate power


Invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, uses steam power to power a ship

Steam-powered Locomotive

Invented by George Stephenson in 1814, uses steam to power a train

Power Loom

Invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785, a machine that uses water power to automatically weave thread

Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)

Bessemer Converter (Makes Steel)



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Internal Combustion Engine








Spread of Industrial Revolution throughout Europe & US

  • Britain banned the export of industrial machines so it could maintain its economic lead, but still, some people exported them

    • William Cockerill, and Englishman, built industrial factory in Belgium in 1799

    • Fritz Harkort, a Prussian army officer who served in England, spread industry to Germany

      • Built heavy industry but lost lots of money


Effects of Industrial Revolution

Societal Changes due to Industrial Revolution

  • Work in factories was really difficult

    • People had to show up in the morning, work for 16 hours a day, 6 days a week

    • People were beaten for poor work

    • Children were often treated cruelly

    • Families would often work together in factories

      • Men & women would have different roles, children would do minor tasks

  • Sometimes, married women would stay at home instead of working in factories

  • Many campaigned for better working conditions

    • Factory Acts (1802-1833) of Britain made better conditions in factories, especially for children

      • Another act ​put people assigned to factories to enforce these laws

  • Many hated that children were forced to do hard work

    • This led to the passage of mandatory education laws for children

  • Created a new class of factory owners, which would earn money at the expense of the working classes

  • Many workers campaigned in labor unions for better conditions, but these were mostly outlawed

  • Slave trade was outlawed in Britain in 1807 & slavery was abolished in 1833, ending major supply of raw materials

  • Cities were often dirty, prone to disease spread

    • Sewage was really dirty, not much medicinal knowledge existed

    • Edwin Chadwick falsely believed disease comes from smelling bad things

    • Bacterial revolution caused mortality to decline

      • Louis Pasteur developed idea of germs

      • Robert Koch contributed to connection between germs & diseases, found which germs cause which diseases

  • Improvements in urban planning & public transport helped cities

    • More parks were built, and electric streetcars provided efficient transport

      • People could thus live farther from cities

  • Wealth gap endured, causing many differences

    • Middle class consisted of professionals & were most necessary for their skills

      • Many middle class wives worked at home, did work similar to putting-out system at home

    • Working class's leisure activities consisted of drinking & heavy sports

    • Church became less common & more disconnected from state & politics

  • Family life became more based on love

    • Couples had more tenderness toward each other & to their children

  • Feminist movement ensued, and women received right to vote in Britain in 1919

    • Mary Wollstonecraft & others founded organizations that campaigned for equal rights


New Ideologies Formed

  • Idea of liberalism gained popularity

    • Congress of Vienna promoted conservatism, discouraging any liberal movement

    • More factory workers wanted liberal reforms, gaining momentum for the liberalist movement

  • Karl Marx promoted the idea of Marxist socialism

    • Believed bourgeoisie (upper classes) were gaining wealth at the expense of the working class (proletariat)

    • Believed competition among bourgeoisie leads to more exploitation of proletariat

    • Believed agents of power (police, etc.) serve the needs of bourgeoisie instead of proletariat

    • Believed leisure activities and religion distract the proletariat from their true subordinate position

    • Believed proletariat would eventually revolt & take over the bourgeoisie (proletarian revolution)

    • Co-wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) with Friedrich Engels, detailing his ideas

    • Laid the foundation for Russian socialism

  • People formed socialist parties & international socialist organizations

    • Social Democratic Party (SDP) in Germany had millions of followers

    • Russians exiled in Switzerland founded Russian SDP in 1883

    • Marx founded International Working Men's Association (First International)

      • This collapsed as Marx promoted violence among working class men, which most hated​

    • Second International lasted until 1914

      • Met regularly to discuss Marxist doctrine


Liberal Reforms in Britain

British Constitutional Monarchy was barely democratic: Only 8% could vote, Parliament served needs of upper classes. Lower/Middle classes wanted more rights

Britain was importing grain, making bread price cheap. Wealthy farmers couldn't sell their grain as it was expensive, so Parliament passed Corn Laws (1815), prohibiting importing grain

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Price of bread rose, so peasants revolted

Wealthy middle class emerged after industrial revolution, encouraged upper classes to enact social reforms

Peasants revolted at St. Peter's field in Manchester (Battle of Peterloo). British army suppressed it

In 1817, Tory government (British conservative party) ended right to assembly & habeas corpus (trial by jury). Passed Six Acts (1819), suppressing rights to assembly

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Tory gov put some reforms: better urban administration, equality to Catholics, allowed some imported grain. Enacted Reform Bill of 1832, allowing middle classes to participate in government

"People's Charter" of 1838 wanted more radical reforms & universal male suffrage, but Parliament rejected it. Anti-Corn Law League (1839) led by middle-class liberals sought to repeal Corn Laws

After Irish potato famine of 1845, tory gov repealed Corn Laws in 1846 to prevent famine in Britain. Passed 10 Hours Act (1847), limiting factory workday for women & children to 10 hours

Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849)

Ireland was in serious poverty: British owned some land in Ireland & leased it to Irish tenants. British imposed high rents, evicting many Irish

Ireland lived on potato crop: One acre of potato could feed 6 people for a year. 1/2 of Irish lived solely on potato crop

Crop failures & diseases in potato crop led to potato deficiencies, leading to famine. Irish gov gave little relief. British landlords still collected rent & evicted many Irish tenants

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Irish had an anti-British feeling as they hated their British landlords. Eventually led to Irish independence (1921)

Discoveries in Science & Art

  • Many discoveries were made in Chemistry & Electricity

    • Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table​

    • Electricity became commercial form of energy, used in telegraphs, radios, etc.

    • Internal Combustion Engine was developed

    • All of these led to 2nd Industrial Revolution

  • Charles Darwin created theory of natural selection

    • Believed evolution occurs as certain variations of species are more fit to survive than others

      • "Survival for the fittest"​

    • Europeans coined the term Social Darwinism to prove that Europeans were more fit than other races to survive

      • Used this to justify racism & colonialism​

  • Universities became more focused on research rather than curriculum

  • Sociology became common as many sociologists critiques modern society

  • Realism became common in art & literature

    • Realists depicted life as is

    • Mostly sought to depict the poor & middle classes as they are rarely depicted in literature

      • Would depict the harsh realities of their life

      • Often depicted labor strikes, violence, etc.

    • Realism became common in literature as authors would write about the harsh realities of modern life


Britain & Ireland after 1871

Reform bill of 1884 gave all males right to vote. Britain was becoming more democratic

Unlike House of Commons, House of Lords hated democracy. Lords enacted bills against democracy from 1901-1910

In Commons, Liberal party came to power in 1906. Lords vetoed their pro-democracy bills

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After Irish Potato Famine (1845), Irish revolted against British rule, so British introduced bills giving them self-rule

Enacted the People's Budget, a bill that makes rich pay more taxes. Used this for social welfare benefits

Later, Lords agreed with Liberal Party in Commons to enact social welfare bills

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Protestants in Northern Ireland opposed self-rule while Catholics in Southern Ireland supported self-rule

Northern Irish raised armies to support their cause. English later supported them 

Later, after WW1, English passed bills to give self-rule to only Southern Ireland

Causes of Imperialism

  • Europeans sought to colonize nations for economic purposes

    • Most wanted to control the raw materials of the colonies to supply to European industrial machines​

      • Europeans would then make manufactured goods & sell it to the colonies​

    • Britain colonized Egypt to gain access to Suez Canal

      • Provided easy access to India

  • Europeans also sought to spread Christianity to the colonies

  • Orientalism is the idea that Europeans viewed the colonies as exotic & wanted to see the life there

    • Many artists & novelists depicted the life in the colonies

  • Europeans sought to colonize other lands to "civilize" them

    • Believed those nations can't properly govern themselves

    • Believed it was a "civilizing mission"

    • Rudyard Kipling wrote White Man's Burden (1899), believed it was a burden to deal with uncivilized people

  • Advanced technology helped Europeans with imperialism

    • Railroads were built in colonies for transportation to help with governance & to transport raw materials to ports

    • Steamships were used to travel from Europe to the colonies

    • Telegraph lines were used for communication from Europe to the colonies & throughout the colonies

    • Maxim machine gun helped take over colonies


Initial Nationalist Rivalries & Alliances in World War 1

  • Germany was becoming most powerful nation in Europe, threatening other nations

    • France was defeated in 1871 (after Franco-Prussian war), so Germany sought to further weaken it

    • Otto von Bismarck (Germany) formed alliances with Austria-Hungary & Russia to isolate France

    • As William II (new German emperor) fired Bismarck in 1890, he repealed the alliances

    • France thus allied w/ Russia in 1894 against Germany

  • Britain also hated growing German power

    • German industrial power was approaching that of Britain

    • German military was threatening British navy

    • German colonial expansion was threatening British colonies

    • Britain thus improved relations w/ US & Japan, signed alliance w/ France in 1904

  • Germany declared French Morocco a free territory in 1905 to test the response of other nations

    • Britain, France, Russia opposed Germany, became known as Triple Entente (Allies)

    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy formed alliance, known as Triple Alliance (Central Powers)

  • People believed war was heroic & good

    • Wanted to test their nation's nationalist response, often stimulating national pride

    • Ruling classes wanted to pursue a war to distract the lower classes from domestic issues

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End of the War

British imposed a naval blockade on Germany, preventing food from reaching there. There were many German protests for more food

France also had a protest among soldiers, but Germans didn't hear it due to censorship

Germany decided to give one last attack westward to France

Bulgaria, Ottomans, Austria-Hungary, and Germany surrendered to the Allies (1918)

France easily defended, Germany ran out of resources

Peace Settlement in the Middle East

  • When Britain & France allied with Arabs against Ottomans, they made vague promise of independence

  • In Sykes Picot Agreement (1916), Britain & France would establish mandates (protectorates) over the Arab states instead of giving independence

    • Britain had Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq

    • France had Lebanon, Syria, South Turkey

  • In Balfour Declaration (1917), Britain would create a Jewish state in Palestine

    • Eventually, as Palestinians revolted, this plan was canceled (the UN later created Israel in 1948)​

  • Britain & France occupied parts of Turkey, and Greece also took some Turkish territory


Spread of Great Depression throughout Europe

  • After stock market crash of 1929, people lost confidence in the market, causing economic downfall

    • People bought less goods, so the price of goods fell, causing people to become poor as they couldn't make enough money from selling goods

    • Industrial goods had little demand, so factories produced less, so they fired more people

      • Thus, more people became unemployed & couldn't buy goods, causing ​factories to produce less & fire more people

  • Economic downfall spread from US to Europe quickly

    • US gave many loans to Europe during & after WW1

    • US bankers sought to repeal their loans & reclaim their money after this crises

    • Thus, Europeans had to quickly pay their loans, causing economic crisis

  • Many European nations abolished gold standard for currency to decrease price of money​

    • This actually led to more inflation

  • Nations increased tariffs to protect domestic industry, causing global trade to decline

  • As unemployment grew, marriages were delayed, fertility decreased, mental illness became more common

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Responses to Great Depression

  • Britain was successful in combating the Great Depression

    • At first, it was unsuccessful as the unemployed people received few social welfare benefits

    • Later, they raised tariffs to protect domestic industry, & abolished gold standards for currency, which actually boosted domestic industry

    • While industrial goods like coal & textiles declined, other goods like automobiles & electrical appliances boomed


Developments in Governance in Interwar Period

  • In Britain, the government became more socialistic

    • Ramsay MacDonald led the Labour Party, which advocated for workers

    • Unemployment was really high in 1926, so the Labour Party made policies in favor of them

    • Labour Party moved gradually to socialism

  • In 1922, Britain gave Southern Catholic colonies of Ireland autonomy after a guerilla war

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German Bombing of London

  • By 1940, Hitler ruled most of Europe and sought to conquer Britain

    • He used his air force to bomb London & other British industrial cities

    • Britain thus produced more planes & had 3x more planes than Germany

      • Britain thus successfully defended against Germany

    • Still, Britain was devastated due to the damage caused by German planes


End of World War 2

Allies Victories

  • US, Britain, and Russia created Grand Alliance (China & France were also part of it later on)

    • Sought to kill the Nazis, then Japan​

  • Germany started expanding into North Africa

    • At 2nd Battle of El Alamein in North Africa, Allies beat Axis, preventing further Axis expansion (known as "hinge of fate")

  • US & Britain took over Italy & overthrew Mussolini, but Germany rescued him & occupied North Italy

    • Thus, Allies had Southern Italy & Axis had Northern Italy

  • US & Britain developed sonar technologies to detect German submarines

    • German submarines previously would sink Allies ships, preventing food from reaching Allies

  • US & Britain also boosted their industrial production & bombed German industrial centers


Allied Victory & Axis Surrender

  • On D-Day (6/6/1944), US & British troops landed in Normandy, France

    • 2 million troops & 500,000 army vehicles from Allies pushed the German front lines all the way to the German border

    • By 1945, the Allies forces had crossed the Rhine into Germany

    • Also, Allies forces pushed Germans out of Italy in 1945​

      • The same year, Italian communists executed Mussolini

  • Meanwhile, Russian forces defeated Germans & pushed westward into Germany

    • In 1944, the Polish underground army took over Warsaw (Warsaw Uprising), but Soviets didn't enter Warsaw as they predicted the uprising

    • Thus, Germans crushed the Warsaw Uprising & allowed Soviets to freely advance

    • Soviets took over Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary

    • Soviets entered Germany from the east in Jan 1925 & met US & British forces there

  • Germans were forced to surrender on May 8, 1945

    • Hitler committed suicide a week earlier


WW2 Peace Settlement & Origin of Cold War

  • After World War 2, the 4 Allies (USSR, UK, US, France) would occupy Germany & Austria to prevent them from becoming powerful again

    • USSR was ruthless & confiscated all industrial machinery & railroads & sent it to the USSR

    • The 4 Allies held the Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946) where they tried high-ranking Nazi officials for war crimes, often sentencing them for year in jail

  • In Feb 1945, US, UK and USSR met in Yalta in Crimea to discuss post-war peace settlement

    • US & UK sought to hold off on peace settlement until this time because they didn't want conflict with communist Stalin

    • The 3 Allies decided that USSR will occupy nations in Eastern Europe & impose free elections

      • Known as Yalta Compromise

  • Later, Yalta Compromise started falling apart​​

    • Communist regimes started taking root in some Eastern European nations

    • At Postdam Conference (Jul 1945), Stalin changed his mind about Yalta Compromise

      • Stalin sought to impose communism in the other Eastern European nations

    • US sought to prevent the spread of communism & impose capitalism (free elections) there

  • This was the start of the Cold War: An indirect war between US & USSR over spreading capitalism vs communism


Postwar Social Transformations

Changing Class Structures & Role of Women

  • After WW2, white collar workers had high position in society instead of people with wealthy familial connections​​

    • White collar workers refer to managers and people with desk jobs​

      • Important in managing large businesses

    • People with inherited property & familial connections declined as their family-owned businesses went out of business

      • Larger corporations took over

  • In East Bloc, all classes were roughly the same

    • Mostly everyone worked & received roughly the same ​benefits

  • Structure for lower classes became more flexible & open as many poor people could become wealthier more easily

    • Rural-urban migration was common, and many former factory workers became white-collar workers​

    • Social welfare benefits also helped the lower classes

  • Women often had more freedom & played a more important role in society

    • Male-dominated industries (iron, steel, etc.) declined, and many women became white-collar workers

    • Many women received an education

    • Women still faced workplace discrimination

      • Often had lower pay & lower positions

      • Often could only find part-time jobs

      • Many married women still had housekeeping & childbreading responsibilities

Post-WW2 Migration Patterns & Youth Culture

  • Post-WW2 internal migration was common

    • Many people migrated from rural to urban centers as less jobs were available in rural places

  • Many colonial subjects migrated to their colonizers' countries

    • Many Indians migrated to Britain

    • These migrants did labor that helped with economic recovery

    • Often were separated into immigrant communities as some Europeans didn't want them in Europe

  • Furthermore, a new youth culture developed

    • These were known as "baby boomers" & were born in the years following WW2​

    • These people enjoyed trendy clothing, music, etc.


Economic Recovery in Western Europe

  • Social Democratic parties emerged throughout Europe, promoting economic recovery

    • Offered a center-right political view

    • Focused on liberalism & democracy instead of nationalism & authoritarianism

      • Britain had a Christian Democratic regime, explaining their economic growth

    • Offered welfare benefits, nationalized important industries, etc. 

  • The Consumer Revolution occurred as more people bought consumer goods

    • Wages were rising and people spend less on basic necessities, allowing them to spend more on extra products

    • People had retirement benefits, allowing them to spend more now as they'd have money later on

    • People often payed in installments with credit unions, allowing them to take on more debt

    • Things like radios, automobiles, TVs, etc. became popular

    • Consumer revolution was more successful in West Bloc than in East Bloc because capitalism (west) allowed more people to buy expensive goods as opposed to class leveling (East)

    • Tourism also became more common

      • Some nations mandated month-long vacations​

      • Packaged tours were offered by some companies

    • Household appliances made housekeeping & cooking easier

    • Consumerism weakened family ties as divorce rates increased and more people lived alone

  • Many criticized the inequality of wealth

    • Wanted something in between capitalism and socialism (known as New Left)

    • Believed capitalism leads to wealth gaps that degrade society

  • In sexual revolution, birth control pills became more common


Economic Crisis & Political Change in Western Europe

  • West entered economic decline in 1970s

    • Most European money was based on US dollar, but as US dollar declined due to high American spending, European currencies declined, causing inflation​

    • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) imposed oil embargo on US, increasing oil prices

    • Caused economic decline & increase in wealth gap

  • Conservative leaders rose to power at this time to bring the west out of economic crisis

    • Believed in having no government intervention in economics at all (free-market or laissez-faire economics)

    • Believed in cutting spending on social welfare benefits

    • Margaret Thatcher led Britain out of economic crisis

    • These conservative policies weren't always super successful

  • Many feminist movements arose during this period

    • Sought equality to men

    • Most were successful but not fully complete

  • Many environmental movements also arose​

    • Sought to limit the effects of environmental degradation

    • Some collaborated with governments, others made non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to support their cause

  • Many separatist movements also occurred

    • Some ethnic minorities wanted separation from larger nations

    • People in Northern Ireland (under British control) wanted independence from the British

      • On Bloody Sunday in Jan 1972, British troops killed many Northern Irish independence protestors

      • Peace was achieved in 1998

    • Others hated European integration and wanted separate customs checks & policies for each individual nation

      • These people often hated immigrants and viewed them as stealing jobs​