Europe from 1200-present

Europe from 1200-1450:

Decline of Feudalism → More Political Centralization, Trade, and Cross-Cultural Interaction

Letters of Credit

European merchants established banks that issued letters of credit. Merchants could deposit money in a bank in their hometown and receive it at a bank in their destination to avoid the risk of robbery. 

Hanseatic League

This was a group of trading ports in Northern Europe that traded grain, timber, and fur. Some merchants traveled on internal European rivers to trade with Central and Western Europeans as well.
Urban Guilds

Urban guilds were organizations of workers that would collectively regulate price and quality standards and help apprentices learn their craft. These would also care for robbed or sick/unemployed members of the guild. 

Spread of Food

Foods like sugarcane and citrus fruits spread throughout Europe and Africa. Sugarcane eliminated the need for honey as a sweetener. 

Place Setting
Spread of Technology

More maritime technology spread like the compass, rudder, and astrolabe. Also, agricultural innovations spread like the heavy plow and three-field system of crop rotation. 

Italian Port Cities

Due to Italy's prime location in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, Italian port cities became really wealthy by controlling trade. The most important cities were Venice and Genoa. 


Due to the Pax Mongolica of the Mongols, many people were able to travel long distances. Marco Polo traveled to China, encouraging other Europeans to do so. Ibn Battuta traveled throughout the Dar al-Islam. 

Joint Liability

Multiple merchants would invest in multiple cargoes so that if one cargo fails to earn profits (robbery, shipwreck, etc.), all merchants share the losses instead of one merchant taking on all of the losses. 

Church Gained Power → More Religious Education and Spread of Christianity

  • More Cathedral schools, taught Bible in Latin

  • St. Thomas Aquinas harmonized Catholic teachings with Aristotelian teachings, believed people could use reason to understand god

  • Pilgrimages to honor saints' relics

  • John of Montecorvino became archbishop of Khanbaliq (Yuan Dynasty Capital)

    • Baptized 6000 boys

    • Didn't have much success in converting population to Christianity due to existence of already sophisticated East Asian traditions


Rivalries between Christians and Muslims

  • Pope Innocent IV sent envoys to Mongol Khan to ask to convert to Christianity to form alliance against Muslims, Mongols refused & threatened to take over Europe

  • Persian Ilkhan sent Rabban Sauma as an envoy to Pope Honorius IV to ask for support to retake Jerusalem from Muslims

    • Rabban Sauma couldn't gain any support​

  • Pope Urban II formed Christian armies against Muslims to retake Jerusalem in Crusades

  • Fourth Crusade ended up taking Constantinople

  • Crusades facilitated spread of Arabic ideas and technologies


The Black Death

  • A disease that originated in Southern China in ~1346

  • Spread via fleas on Silk Road merchants & Mongol warriors to Europe by 1347

  • Symptoms included large black nodes & could cause death in a few days

  • Killed 1/3 of European population, often destroyed entire villages

  • Lost population → Labor shortages

    • Less peasants were surviving

    • Surviving peasants could campaign for higher wages & eventually won some freedom​

  • Ended in about 1353 but outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1700s


Revolutions within Europe:


  • Rebirth and patronization of human achievements
    • Known as Humanism​
    • Promoted personal beauty and achievements
  • Patronized ancient Greek & Roman classics

  • Sculptures were made to look exactly like real human postures as opposed to exaggerated figures

  • Wealthy people patronized artists & commissioned them to make artwork for them

  • Lots of artwork was kept in churches as the church also patronized artwork

  • Linear perspective artistic style was developed, allowed for 3-D paintings

  • More Humanist books were published, wrote about the church or an ideal world

    • Niccolo Machiavelli published The Prince, taught that rulers shouldn't use religion to justify power


Scientific Revolution

List of Scientists & Discoveries

Nicolaus Copernicus

First person to propose heliocentric model (in which all planets orbit the sun instead of the earth). 

Galileo Galilei

Used telescope, proved heavenly bodies (sun, moon, Venus, etc.) aren't spherical & smooth like Bible claims. Proved law of inertia. 

Johannes Kepler

Proved planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular. 

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Isaac Newton

Proved the forces of universal gravitation that govern the universe. 

William Harvey

Discovered blood circulation. Studied anatomy, discovered that women's bodies are useless compared to men's bodies. 

Emilie du Chatelet

Influential woman scientist. Translated Newton's works into French & added additional explanations into her book, Principia Mathematica

Change in Thinking & Emergence of Deism

  • Most of the discoveries undermined Catholic teachings

    • Heliocentric model disproved the fact that Earth was center of universe​

    • Universal gravitation disproved that heavenly forces govern the world

  • Scientists created a new ideology, deism

    • Believed that a god created the universe but doesn't intervene later as the natural forces govern the universe


Protestant Reformation & Catholic Developments

Origins of Protestant Reformation

  • Martin Luther, a theology professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany, believed the Catholic church was corrupt
What was Wrong with the Church?
  • Luther believed people go to heaven by way of god rather than through the Catholic church

  • Luther hated the sale of indulgences (Catholic church sold forgivenesses of sins to people)

  • Luther hated that the Bible was only available in Latin as opposed to regional and common languages

  • In 1517, Luther wrote 95 Theses, a pamphlet with 95 theses against the Catholic church, and nailed it to the Wittenberg Church
  • The printing press helped spread his views
  • Many agreed with him, but Pope Gregory X excommunicated him in 1520
  • He was called to a meeting at Worms in 1521, but he refused to recant his ideas

Protestantism & Other Denominations

  • Luther's ideas led to a new branch of Christianity, Protestantism
  • Lutheran's own views were compiled into a denomination of Protestantism, Lutheranism
  • John Calvin, a French Protestant who moved to Geneva, created the Calvinist Church
    • Believed god predestined a certain group of people (known as "the elect") to go to heaven

  • King Henry VIII of England wanted to divorce his wife (Catherine of Aragon) as he didn't have a male heir with her, but Pope Clement VII refused to let him

    • King Henry VII thus split from the Catholic church & established the Anglican church​​​​​


Catholic Counter Reformation

  • Catholic pope wanted to slow the spread of Protestantism, reformed Catholic doctrine
  • Pope and other church officials met at Council of Trent from 1545 - 1563
  • Promoted better education and training for church officials
  • Banned sale of indulgences
  • Clarified church's position on religious questions like salvation and heaven
  • Still kept Latin as official language
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Other Developments within Catholicism

  • Witch-hunting became common
    • People hunted, tried, and executed witches (people who they believed worshipped hell and the devil)
    • 110,000 witches were tried in court, 45,000 witches were executed
    • Most convicted witches were women, especially poor divorced women as they had few people to protect them 
  • In 1534, Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus​​

    • Believed that praying to god led to salvation​

    • Had a rigorous education system for clergy

    • Practiced self-control & moderation



Origins of Enlightenment

  • Monarchs consolidated all power for themselves & claimed "divine right"
    • Believed god chose them to rule & gave them all the power to control their subjects
  • Enlightenment thinkers believed in promoting human progress, so they ​​promoted more human rights and liberties


Major Enlightenment Thinkers & Their Effect

Thomas Hobbes

Believed men are evil & prone to violent warfare. Believed a strong ruler was necessary to prevent war-like behavior of men. 

John Locke

Believed all men have rights of life, liberty, and pursuit of property. Believed ruler must guarantee these rights or else people can overthrow the ruler. 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Believed all men are free & society should organize itself according to majority rule & the will of the general public. 

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Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)

Believed in religious tolerance. Believed rulers shouldn't use religion to justify their rule. 

Baron de Montesquieu

Believed government should have a checks & balances system to prevent it from becoming too powerful. 

Impact of Enlightenment

All of these ideas led to the political revolutions of America, France, Haiti, and Latin America (Time Period 3). 

Politics within Europe & Religious Wars:


Before 1469, Spain was divided into multiple kingdoms

In 1469, King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile

Partially unified Spain

In 1478, Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a government program intended to attack all non-Catholics

Through Spanish Inquisition, they conquered Muslim Kingdom of Granada in 1492

Thus, Spain was completely unified under Catholic rule. End of Spanish Inquisition

In 1556, Charles V (ruler of large Habsburg domain from Spain to Austria) retired

His son Philip II inherited Spain & Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium)

King Philip II continued Spanish Inquisition. Continued to attack all non-Catholics

Attacked Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium) in 1568 as they were Calvinist (a branch of Protestantism)

Spanish Armada (Spanish navy) attacked England in 1588 as they were Anglican (a branch of Protestantism)

7 northern provinces  became independent, known as United Provinces. 10 southern provinces were still under Spanish control

English navy successfully defended against Spanish


English retreated from France after 100 years' war

France started centralizing power

Bourbon Regime took over. First Bourbon king (Henry IV) issued Edict of Nantes (1598), which allowed Huguenots (French Protestants) to practice their religion

Cardinal Richelieu was chief advisor to King Louis XIII. Helped Huguenots defeat Catholic Habsburgs during 30 years' war. 

King Louis XIV took over. Known as "sun king." Consolidated all power, forced nobles to live at newly-built Palace of Versailles. Revoked Edict of Nantes. 

Louis XIV's financial advisor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert helped increase size of French empire, tried to manage French war debts. 

Louis XIV's grandson, Philip V, inherited the Spanish throne

War of Spanish Succession ensued, other nations hated prospect of Spain-France alliance

Peace Agreement was that Philip V can inherit Spanish throne but can't combine with France. 


English Civil War (1642-1649)

King Charles I needed money from Parliament

Charles I signed Petition of Right, limiting his power & giving more power to Parliament, so Parliament could give him money

Charles I got the money he needed and revoked the Petition of Right & reclaimed divinity & absolute authority

Parliament refused to give him money because he reclaimed absolute authority & revoked Parliament's rights

Charles I needed money from Parliament to fight the Irish Rebellion

Irish Catholics resented absolute rule of Anglican Charles I, mounted Irish Rebellion of 1641

Charles I attacked some members of Parliament to get the money he needed

Also, Charles I was Anglican and wanted ornate religious ceremonies with a hierarchy of bishops, unlike his Puritan & Calvinist Parliament members

Parliament organized an army under Oliver Cromwell to defeat Charles I

Oliver Cromwell's army won after English Civil War (1642-49), Cromwell (a Puritan) took the throne. Encouraged Protestants to settle in Northern Ireland as he was religiously intolerant. Gave Parliament more power. 

Stuart Restoration (1660)

Oliver Cromwell died

Charles II took over, restored monarchy (Stuart Restoration) (1660)

Glorious Revolution (1689)

Charles II died

James II took over. He was Catholic & unpopular. 

Parliament feared James II would make England a Catholic state, so they removed him from office, put his daughter, Mary, & her husband, William of Orange, in power. Known as Glorious Revolution (1689), ensures Anglican future of England & parliament's high power

Holy Roman Empire

Largely decentralized, hundreds of nation-states existed, north was largely Lutheran, south was largely Catholic. Central authority in Holy Roman Empire was loose. 

Charles V (Habsburg Emperor) signed Peace of Augsburg (1555), allowed each individual state to adopt their own religion. This peace didn't last long. 

Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

In 1618, Protestant Bohemians challenged central Catholic authority of Holy Roman Empire

Thirty Years' War started (1618-1648). Many nations were involved, France benefited the most (as Richelieu helped). Holy Roman Empire lost 1/3 of its population. 

Peace of Westphalia (1648) allowed individual states in Holy Roman Empire to govern themselves

European Age of Exploration:

Motives for Exploration

Economic Motives

  • Believed in mercantilism, a belief in which all wealth on Earth was fixed and measured in gold
    • European nations wanted a higher share of this gold, so they pursued economic ventures
  • Europeans wanted to trade goods directly with Asia without Muslim intermediaries of the Middle East

    • Thus, they embarked on sea voyages to find the fastest routes from Europe to Asia

  • Royal support for these voyages was common as nations wanted more glory by finding the fastest routes to Asia & dominating the most territory

    • Church lifted its ban on giving loans for interest, so many royal governments gave large sponsorships to explorers to showcase their nation's power & glory

  • Economic voyages led to the rise of joint-stock companies

    • Multiple merchants would pool their resources into a few large cargo ships so they all share the profits​

    • Thus, if one cargo fails (robbery, shipwreck, etc.), all merchants can still profit from other cargoes

    • Successful cargos can yield huge profits for merchants

    • This system dominated overseas trade during this time

    • British East India Company & Dutch VOC (United East India Company) were most dominant joint-stock companies

Maritime Technology

What technology enabled Europeans to venture into the sea?
  • Maritime innovations like the magnetic compass, lateen sail, astrolabe, and sternpost rudder

    • Europeans could venture into the open sea without fear of getting lost​

Remember Europe acquired all of these innovations through the trade routes of the 13th & 14th centuries?

  • New fast cargo ships: The Portuguese used caravel & carrack, and the Dutch used Fluyt (much faster than the Caravel, allowing Dutch to outperform the Portuguese later on)

  • Europeans deciphered wind patterns in the oceans & used barometers to predict storms

Religious Motives

  • Europeans wanted to spread Christianity, which was another reason for exploration
    • When Vasco da Gama arrived in India, he said, "I want Christians and spices," showing his desire to convert the Indian population to Christianity
  • Especially after Protestant Reformation, nations wanted to spread their newly adopted denomination of Christianity
    • English sought to spread Anglicanism, Spain zealously preached Catholicism, etc.​


Portugal & Spain Start Exploration

  • Portugal started European exploration as it is a small country facing the Atlantic & can only expand westward
    • Portugal had lots of royal support for these journeys

    • Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal promoted sea voyages down the African coast in mid 1400s​

    • Portuguese built many trade posts on West African coast

    • In 1488, Bartholomew Diaz became first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope (the Southern tip of Africa), but he returned home immediately afterward

    • In 1497, Vasco da Gama became first European to sail to India around Cape of Good Hope

      • Many others later followed his journey to dominate spice trade from India​

  • In 1492, Spain sponsored Christopher Columbus's journey to find a westward route to Asia

    • Instead of reaching Asia, Columbus reached some Caribbean islands, thinking they were Japan

    • It wasn't until 1497 when Spain sponsored Amerigo Vespucci, who traveled to South America, that they realized the land isn't Asia & is another land (named America after Amerigo, first one to realize new land)

English, French, and Dutch Exploration

  • English, French, & Dutch also sponsored explorative voyages, but they weren't as zealous as Spain & Portugal
    • Mostly sought to find the Northwest Passage (a route to Asia via north of Canada

    • English sought to spread Anglicanism, Dutch sought to spread Calvinism, French sought to spread Catholicism


Exploration to Asia

  • In addition to colonizing the Americas, Europeans built trading posts in many coastal Asian cities
    • Portuguese built many posts on West African coast & Goa (in India)

    • Dutch established a post in modern-day Indonesia

    • England & France established posts in India

    • Spain established a post in present-day Philippines (named after King Philip II)

  • China & Japan were isolationist, limited their contact with Europeans


List of Major Explorers



Year of Journey


Bartholomew Dias



First to round the Cape of Good Hope (Southern tip of Africa). Returned home immediately afterward. 

Christopher Columbus



First to land in Americas. Landed in Caribbean islands. Thought they were some islands near Japan. 

Vasco da Gama



First to sail to India. Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to India. Returned to Portugal with lots of spices. 

John Cabot



Sailed for England, arrived in present-day New Foundland. 

Amerigo Vespucci



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Sailed to South America. First to realize new land is not Asia & is instead a new continent. Named America after Amerigo. 

Pedro Alvares Cabral



Discovered Brazil, made claims for Portugal there. 

Ponce de Leon



Explored present-day Florida, made claims for Spain there. 

Vasco Nuñez de Balboa



Explored Panama. Found Pacific Ocean when traveling overland from Panama.  

Ferdinand Magellan



First to circumnavigate the world. Sailed through a strait near tip of South America. Died in Philippines, his crew returned to Spain.

Giovanni da Verazzano



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First European to explore North American coast between Florida and New Brunswick (located in present-day Canada). 

Jacques Cartier



Laid claims for France in Canada. Discovered and sailed through St. Lawrence River. 

Sir Francis Drake



First Englishman to circumnavigate the world. Discovered Tierra del Fuego (tip of South America). Disrupted Spanish Armada. 

Henry Hudson



Tried to find Northwest Passage, sailed through Hudson river to present-day New York City. Named it New Amsterdam. 

Columbian Exchange

  • Exchange of goods, animals, crops, and diseases from Afro-Eurasia to the Americas
    • First time the ecosystems of Americas & Afro-Eurasia were connected

    • Potatoes, maize, squash, tomatoes went from Americas to Afro-Eurasia

      • Led to enriched diet & population growth in Afro-Eurasia

    • Livestock, fruits, sugarcane, disease went from Afro-Eurasia to Americas

  • Disease was one of the most influential things that went from Afro-Eurasia to Americas

    • Indigenous peoples of Americas weren't immune to European diseases → Died in large numbers

    • Whooping cough, smallpox, measles all killed majority of indigenous American population


Nationalism & French Revolution

Definition of Nationalism

  • Force of a common identity among people of a common ethnic, linguistic, or cultural group
    • For example, everyone that resides in present-day Italy would feel unified due to their common language and ethnicity
  • Played a major role in political revolutions and unifications

    • In Italy & Germany, people of different ​states felt a common identity & unified their country

    • In America, Haiti, and Latin America, the colonial subjects felt a common identity, allowing them to unify themselves and strive for independence

    • Allowed Greeks to declare independence from Ottomans in 1821

  • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria argued at the Congress of Vienna that nationalism was bad

    • Believed it would persecute minorities​

    • Believed in absolute monarchy as opposed to republic to prevent any nation from becoming too powerful with force of nationalism


Anti-Semitism & Zionism

  • People used nationalism to justify that Jews didn't belong as they were ethnically different from other Europeans
    • Jews often faced persecution in European society
    • Played a major role in political revolutions and unifications
  • Theodor Herzl wrote a pamphlet called Judenstaat
    • Argued for a Jewish state​ in which all Jews can peacefully live
    • This was known as Zionism
    • Eventually, in 1948, Israel was created for all Jews to migrate​

French Revolution

Causes of the French Revolution

  • France had lots of war debts
    • It lost the 7 years' war and the War of Spanish Succession​
  • In 1789, King Louis XVI called a meeting for the Estates General, the parliamentary body that hadn't met since 1614

    • The nobility, clergy, and commoners each get one vote in parliament, despite that the commoners make up the majority of the population

    • Commoners wanted social reform → Formed their own constitution, the National Assembly, giving power to the state (as opposed to the king or the people)

    • Revolutionaries chanted "liberty, equality, fraternity"

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Events of the French Revolution

France had lots of war debts from the 7 years' war, American Revolution, & War of Spanish Succession

King Louis XVI called a meeting for the Estates General in 1789 to discuss implementing taxes

The third Estate (commoners) formed the National Assembly, a government that sought constitutional liberties for the people

Adopted Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen (1789). Gave constitutional liberties to all free men. Abolished feudalism, still kept monarchy, kept power in nation-state

Peasants feared the military would attack them before getting their reforms, so they stormed Bastille prison to acquire weapons. July 14, 1789

National Assembly members met in an indoor tennis court. Agreed to "Tennis Court Oath," agreed not to disband until they receive constitutional liberties

Ratified new constitution with Louis XVI's approval in 1791. 

Wife of Louis XVI (Marie Antoinette) was sister of Austrian emperor. Austria & Prussia declared war on France to restore French monarchy in 1792

Jacobin party (group of Parisian revolutionaries) created a new constitution known as the Convention, declaring France a republic (1792)

Napoleon Bonaparte, a military general in the Directory, overthrew Directory in 1799, established Consulate (consolidated power for himself)

French executed Robespierre on the guillotine. French people created a new constitution called the Directory, which was like a military government (1795)

Maximilien Robespierre created Committee of Public safety to defend against political dissidents & rival nations. Used guillotine to execute dissidents (including Louis XVI). Known as Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

Created Napoleonic Codes, granted civil liberties to men (not women). Reformed agriculture, education, infrastructure

Led army & conquered Spain, Austria, Prussia, Portugal, Italy, Holy Roman Empire by 1810. In 1812, he conquered Moscow but Russian wintertime caused his military to suffer due to a lack of supplies

Sent to exile in Elba (1814), came out of exile later (1815), led French military for 100 days, defeated at Waterloo & sent to exile in remote island of St. Helena (1815). He died in St. Helena (1821). 

Compare & Contrast the 4 Constitutions of French Revolution

National Assembly

Power rested in the nation-state, not the king or the people. Adopted civil liberties for men. Still kept a monarchy but later abolished it. 


Power rested in the people. This was a republic. Made radical changes (10-day week, turned against religion). Used guillotine. Gave more civil liberties to the people


This was a military government. Power was mostly in the military. This had less civil liberties than the Convention. 

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This was a dictatorship. Power was in Napoleon and his army. Gave civil liberties to men though Napoleonic Codes. Reformed education & infrastructure. 

Prince Klemens von Metternich & Congress of Vienna

  • Austrian prince Klemens Von Metternich led Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
    • All major European nations invaded by Napoleon attended
  • Decided that balance of power was needed to prevent rise of another dictator
    • Restored France to pre-Napoleon borders​
    • Restored Monarchy in Spain, France, Netherlands, etc.
    • Didn't grant Enlightenment or revolutionary ideals to French people, essentially erasing all of the French Revolution

Industrial Revolution:

How Britain Started the Industrial Revolution

Why did the British lead the Industrial Revolution?
  • Lots of water access, good for transporting resources like coal, also good to operate water wheels

  • Had lots of natural resources, like coal

  • British had a central bank that could finance development of industrial capital

  • Due to British lead, British government banned the exportation of industrial technology to maintain British economic dominance

List of Major Inventions

First Industrial Revolution (1760-1830)

Flying Shuttle

Invented by John Kay (1733), used to speed up cotton weaving

Spinning Jenny

Invented by James Hargreaves (1764), used to spin cotton

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Water Frame

Invented by Paul Arkwright in 1768, uses water power to spin cotton

Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, separates cotton seeds from cotton fiber

Interchangeable Parts

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1798, a concept that multiple factory workers can make individual parts of an item & join them together

Steam Engine

Invented by Thomas Newcomer, James Watt improved it in 1769. Uses burned coal to generate steam to turn a wheel and generate power


Invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, uses steam power to power a ship

Steam-powered Locomotive

Invented by George Stephenson in 1814, uses steam to power a train

Agricultural Revolutions

Enclosure made public lands privately owned. New plowing, seeding, and harvest-reaping machines made farming easier. 

Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)

Bessemer Converter (Makes Steel)



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Internal Combustion Engine








Transformations of Lifestyle

More agricultural innovations

More people worked in factories

More people could pursue their own interests & leisure activities

Families split up: Women often stayed at home, children worked separately

More migration to cities

Less people needed in farmlands

Creation of new middle class

  • In factories, people had hazardous & intense working conditions
    • People worked almost 16 hours a day, 6 days of week
    • Low pay & close supervision from managers, so if work was bad, worker would be beaten or fired
    • Repeating same job over again was hazardous for the muscles
    • Sometimes the air was toxic
    • Many children were forced to work, sometimes even in the coal mines as their fingers could fit into the crevasses of the mine

New Economic and Social Ideologies

  • Adam smith believed in free-market (laissez faire) economics

    • Believed in no government intervention in trade & economics​

      • At this time, many European governments regulated economies & colonial trade

      • Smith wanted more private enterprises to do colonial trade, like the British East India Company

    • Also believed in abolishing trade guilds as they restrict free economics

  • Karl Marx believed that the working class (proletariat) had good opportunities that were taken away by the emergence of capitalism

    • Believed proletariat were exploited by the capitalists (bourgeoisie)

    • Believed competition between capitalists further exploits proletariat

    • Believed leisure activities and religion distract the proletariat from their true subordinate position in society

    • Believed that eventually, the proletariat will revolt and dominate society

    • Believed all instruments of power (police, government) were on the side of the capitalists

    • Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) with these ideas


Labor Unions & Social Reforms

  • People formed labor unions to campaign for better rights

    • Wanted limited working hours, better conditions at the factory​

  • Some reformers formed utopian communities to show how society should be like

    • Limited working hours, provided education for the youth, made work only by desire as opposed to coercion

    • All of these communities eventually disbanded due to high operating costs

  • In 1800s, a group called Luddites protested factory conditions in England​

    • Destroyed factories at night, eventually got arrested

  • British Factory Act (1883) limits working hours in factories, restricts children's work, and makes conditions safer

  • Later, mandatory education laws were passed for children

  • All of these reforms led to a higher standard of living and eventually the abolishment of slavery


How Nations Acquired Natural Resources

European nations colonized other nations