Unit 4: Market Revolution

General Timeline
General Map

Map # 1: The United States

Course Content

Market Revolution:


Industrial & Communication Revolution

Origins of Industrial Revolution

  • Industrial Revolution began in Britain in late 1700s

    • Britain pioneered it due to high capital investment, natural resources (e.g. coal), and easy access to waterways (e.g. rivers)

    • Britain outlawed the export of industrial machinery to maintain a lead in industrialization

  • However, some British immigrants to America brought knowledge of industrial machinery with them

    • Samuel Slater (an English immigrant) established first factory in the US​ in 1790

      • Built in Pawtucket, RI

      • Used water-power to power the mill

      • Produced yarn from cotton, which was then woven by rural families

    • Oliver Evans helped perfect the high-pressure steam engine​

      • Used it to power the flour mill

  • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin

    • Automated the process of purifying raw cotton

    • Due to decline in tobacco production, slavery was declining

      • Invention of cotton gin increased demand for cotton, which revived the demand for slavery​

  • Eli Whitney also created idea of interchangeable parts

    • Thought that complicated objects (guns, clocks, etc.) could be made of multiple small parts​

    • Different people could manufacture each individual part

      • One person can then put them all together in the end​

    • Thus, it is easier to make objects in mass

      • Also, if an object breaks, you can replace the individual broken part

    • Helped increase gun supply during Quasi War w/ France (1798-1800)


Communications Revolution

  • America needed a good transportation network to transport raw materials to factories

    • Oliver Evans perfected the high-pressure steam engine, which was used to power riverboats​

    • Robert Fulton designed the 1st steam-powered riverboat​

      • Proved his model by launching the boat Clermont up the Hudson in 1807

    • Many canals were built to allow transportation via steamboats

  • American merchants became dominant figures in global shipping as Europe was at war

  • Many roads were built with turnpikes (known as Turnpike era)

    • Turnpikes were toll gates on the roads

    • Roads connected major cities & few went to countryside

      • Cost a lot to maintain it, so only places w/ high traffic could generate lots of revenue via tolls

  • Many railroads were also constructed, amounting to 30k miles by 1860

    • Often connected major cities but were still primitive & slow​

  • Samuel Morse invented the telegraph in 1830s, and used Morse Code to communicate

  • Innovations in journalism & paper-printing enabled more newspapers to be circulated

    • Richard Hoe invented steam cylinder rotary press, which could print newspapers quickly & cheaply


Erie Canal

  • A 363-mile canal built from Lake Erie to Hudson River in Albany

    • Allowed for goods to travel throughout Upstate NY to NYC

    • Goods would then embark on ships at NYC to be sold in other cities

  • Allowed migration in upstate NY

    • Upstate NY had thriving wheat industry

    • Cities like Albany, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo became big

  • Influenced construction of other canals

    • Many states financed canals within their land

    • Many canals were built to connect major East Coast cities w/ Ohio & Mississippi Valleys


Effects of Industrialization

Westward Migration

  • During this time, over 4 million people migrated westward

    • Efficient transportation enabled their migrations

    • Often migrated in communities

    • 6 new states were created from 1815-1821

  • American population growth enabled the westward migration

    • Improvements in public health, low child mortality, etc. contributed to growing population

  • Most migrants bought land from speculators on a long-term credit

  • Some Americans even migrated into lands ruled by foreign powers

    • Believed they had the right to as America was superior​

  • Many slaves were forced to migrate westward

    • Some migrated with their owners

    • Others were sold to auctioneers & migrated in coffles to the west then sold there

    • Caused break in long-standing slave communities in the south & decreased hope for liberty

Growth of Cities

  • As factories grew and less people were needed for agricultural labor, cities grew

    • Cities at crossroads of major transportation networks grew in size

      • St. Louis, Cincinatti, Chicago, etc.

  • Still, US cities weren't as large as major European cities

    • NYC, Philadelphia, Baltimore, etc. had between 20-70k people, as large as secondary European cities

    • Cities had elegant houses, theaters, etc.


Changes in Agriculture & Growth of Cotton Kingdom

  • The South became known as the Cotton Kingdom

    • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, making it easy to separate cotton fibers from its seeds

    • Prevented slavery from declining due to decreased tobacco demand as cotton production increased

    • After War of 1812, Indians ceded lots of land to the US , expanding US cotton plantations in the south

    • Many new states in the South were added to the Union (MS, LA, AR, AL)

    • This area in the south became known as the cotton kingdom for its expansive cotton production

  • In the North, farmers became less self-sufficient & started selling & buying goods in the store

    • Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper, making it easier to harvest goods (such as wheat)​

    • Many farmers grew wheat, and others produced dairy products or other crops


Life During Industrialization

Life in the Factories

  • A group of Boston investors called Boston Associates created first large-scale factory in US

    • Located in Waltham, MA

    • Created second one in Lowell, MA

    • Spun & wove cloth in one factory

    • Factories often used water power from nearby rivers to power the factories

  • The South opposed industrialization

    • It didn't have the demand for industrial goods

    • Slaveowners opposed industrialization

    • Industrialization was confined mostly to New England

  • Factory life was really harsh

    • Workers worked long hours w/ strict supervision & low pay​

    • Worked on a strict hourly wage

    • Had to perform the same task repeatedly for hours

    • Many opposed this strict work schedule, so factory owners hired many poor people w/o better jobs

  • Many early factories in MA hired young girls

    • Known as "Mill Girls"​

    • Wanted extra money for themselves

    • Working in factories often violated their freedom & privacy

Immigration & Nativism

  • Many people migrated from Europe in search of job opportunities

    • In Europe, the Industrial Revolution disrupted centuries-old patterns of life

      • Peasants were thrown off their land

    • Trans-Atlantic steam boats allowed for immigration

  • Many Irish people came to escape Great Potato Famine (1845-1851)

    • Mostly impoverished, lacked industrial skills

    • Took jobs in canal-digging, railroad-building, and domestic service

  • Many Germans also migrated, settled mostly in the Midwest

  • Many nativists hated the rising immigration

    • Especially hated the Irish as they were Catholic​

      • Archbishop John Hughes of NYC sought to promote Catholicism

    • Believed immigrants aren't suitable for Republican ideals of freedom

    • Blamed immigrants for growing corruption & crime

    • Many nativists led anti-immigration riots

    • Nativists created the Native American Party in 1845

      • Promoted American supremacy & sought to ban immigrants from certain privileges​

      • Became known as the "Know-nothings"​

        • Had a code of secrecy called "I know nothing" for many restricted places, so that's how the name emerged​

      • Party had some power in the northeast, but it declined in late 1850s

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Inequality of Wealth, Race, & Gender

  • Many people became rich due to market revolution

    • Wealth gap increased

    • People became rich due to hard work, not necessarily inherited from family

    • New opportunities in law, medicine, & advanced fields opened up for smart & wealthy people

  • Market society discriminated against blacks

    • Blacks were slaves in the south

    • In the North, free blacks lived in subordinate neighborhoods w/ dirty housing

    • Often couldn't get jobs as no whites customers would want to be served by them

    • Richard Allen created African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia for blacks

  • Women got more of a domestic job & had lower economic status

    • Were responsible for embodying values of beauty

    • Responsible for teaching republican values of liberty, equality, etc. to their children

    • Before the market revolution, some women wove cloth at home

    • Poor women worked as seamstresses or servants

    • Middle-class women stayed at home


Origins of Labor Movement

  • Many believed market revolution was against their republican values of liberty

    • Believed wage labor to be like slavery

  • Wanted no imprisonment for debt, shorter working hours, free education, etc.

  • Hated widening wealth gap

  • Labor unions campaigned for better rights

Important Terms & People