Scandinavia from 1450-present

Present-day Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland

Appeal of Protestantism in Scandinavia

  • Protestantism appealed in Scandinavia

    • King Christian III of Denmark-Norway (union of the two states) adopted Lutheranism

      • Spread easily in Denmark & slowly in Norway & Iceland​

    • King Gustav I of Sweden adopted Lutheranism

      • Later altered Lutheran doctrine slightly to create their own church


Scandinavian Involvement in Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

Danish Phase (1625-1629)

King Christian IV of Denmark led Protestants against Catholics (led by Albrecht Wallenstein). English King Charles I (Protestant) allied against France & Spain but failed. Habsburgs issued edict of Restitution, allowed Catholics to regain land they lost. 

Swedish Phase (1630-1635)

Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus supported Protestants. French minister Cardinal Richelieu supported Swedish. Adolphus died in war. 

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Peter the Great & the Great Northern War (1700-1721)

  • Peter I (Peter the Great) sought to gain access to Baltic Sea

    • Entered Secret alliance with Poland & Denmark to take some Baltic coastline from Sweden

    • Swedish army defeated Russians, sparking Great Northern War (1700-1721)

    • Peter I westernized Russian army & strengthened it to defeat Swedish in 1721 & gain access to Baltic Sea

    • Peter I built St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea


Responses to Great Depression in Scandinavia

  • Scandinavian countries were the most successful in combating the Great Depression

    • Social Democratic leadership allowed these nations to be successful

    • Very cooperative with their community, promoted public works projects to employ people

    • Increased social welfare benefits