Southeast Asia from 1200-present

Indian Influence in Southeast Asia

  • Kingdom of Funan adopted Indian administrative structure and used the term raja for king

  • Kingdom of Angkor built Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat to represent the Hindu universe

  • Kingdom of Srivijaya controlled maritime trade around island of Sumatra, adopted Buddhism

  • Kingdom of Melaka dominated trade through Strait of Melaka, adopted Islam


European Colonization of Southeast Asia from 1450-1750

  • In 1521, Spain colonized Philippines
    • Named it Philippines after King Philip II
    • Used it as a trading warehouse to dominate silver trade
      • Got silver from silver mines in Spanish colonies of Americas​
      • Sold silver to China in exchange for luxury Chinese products
      • Silver traveled on the Manila Galleons, ships that went from Acapulco (Mexico) to Manila (Philippines) 
      • Ferdinand Magellan sailed to Philippines & died there
  • Dutch colonized Indonesia (Dutch East Indies)
    • Established trading post at Batavia (present-day Jakarta)
    • United East India Company (VOC) owned by Dutch monopolized Indonesian spice trade

Imperialism in Southeast Asia from 1750-1900

  • British colonized Burma & Malaya
    • Exploited the rubber and tin of Malaya
    • Founded port of Singapore in 1824, became one of the most prosperous port cities
  • French colonized Indochina
    • Encouraged conversion to Catholicism
    • Sought to spread European values through schools
  • Thailand wasn't colonized as it was a buffer between British Burma & French Indochina

Involvement of Southeast Asia in World War 2

  • Japan conquered many Southeast Asian lands during WW2
    • Wanted to free it from European rule​
      • Actually imposed Japanese rule over them​
    • Integrated them into Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
    • Conquered Singapore from British, Malaya, Dutch East Indies, Burma, Philippines, French Indochina

Vietnamese Independence

Vietnamese Independence from France

Japanese conquest of Vietnam ended French rule there

Vietnamese proclaimed independence

French came back with aid of US & Britain, retook South Vietnam, then conquered North Vietnam Communist (Viet Minh) forces

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Defeated French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954

Ho Chi Minh & Vo Nguyen Giap (members of Viet Minh Communist group) used guerilla warfare to defeat French

Vietnam War (1955-1975)

Geneva Peace Conference (1954) decided Vietnam would be divided into Communist North & Democratic South

South Vietnamese president, Ngo Dinh Diem, sought to stop spread of communism in South Vietnam

Communist forces mounted guerilla war on him. Communists in South Vietnam formed National Liberation Front (NLF) to get freedom from South Vietnam

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Richard Nixon (US) agreed to end war as American citizens hated involvement in it

Lyndon Johnson (US) provided bombs & soldiers to South Vietnam, only could make stalemate with North

Dwight Eisenhower (US) allied with South Vietnam to stop spread of communism

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Nixon initiated policy of Vietnamization, escalating the war. He brought Cambodia into the war & bombed North Vietnam more

Nixon withdrew from war. North Communist (Viet Minh) and NLF (Southern Communist) conquered South, reunified Vietnam in 1976