Time Period 3: 1750 - 1900

General Timeline
General Maps

Map #1: Afro-Eurasia & Australia

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Map #2: North America

Map #3: South America

Course Content



Definition of Nationalism

  • Force of a common identity among people of a common ethnic, linguistic, or cultural group
    • For example, everyone that resides in present-day Italy would feel unified due to their common language and ethnicity
  • Played a major role in political revolutions and unifications

    • In Italy & Germany, people of different ​states felt a common identity & unified their country

    • In America, Haiti, and Latin America, the colonial subjects felt a common identity, allowing them to unify themselves and strive for independence

    • Allowed Greeks to declare independence from Ottomans in 1821

  • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria argued at the Congress of Vienna that nationalism was bad

    • Believed it would persecute minorities​

    • Believed in absolute monarchy as opposed to republic to prevent any nation from becoming too powerful with force of nationalism


Anti-Semitism & Zionism

  • People used nationalism to justify that Jews didn't belong as they were ethnically different from other Europeans
    • Jews often faced persecution in European society
    • Played a major role in political revolutions and unifications
  • Theodor Herzl wrote a pamphlet called Judenstaat
    • Argued for a Jewish state​ in which all Jews can peacefully live
    • This was known as Zionism
    • Eventually, in 1948, Israel was created for all Jews to migrate​

Compare & Contrast: Usage of Nationalism in early 1800s vs late 1800s

In the late 1700s & early 1800s, nationalism was used toward good causes, like uniting a minority population or an oppressed population to receive independence from the colonizer. Similarly, it was also used to unify Italy & Germany. However, in late 1800s & early 1900s, people used nationalism to justify the exclusion of minorities, especially Jews, causing Zionists to campaign for a Jewish state. 

Political Revolutions:


American Revolution

Causes of the American Revolution

  • British ruled East Coast of present-day US since 1600s
    • Had local governing councils but also some support from the British crown
  • In late 1700s, British started levying taxes on certain American purchases, like stamps, tea, etc.

    • Sought to raise money for the British Crown to help pay off war debts

    • Americans (colonists of the US) revolted, chanted "no taxation without representation"

  • One problem was that about 25% of Americans were loyalists (people loyal to British) & opposed independence

    • Thomas Paine published a pamphlet, Common Sense, urged people to fight for independence


Events of the American Revolution

British levied taxes on Americans without giving them representation in British parliament

French forces joined the war in 1777 against the British as they rivaled the British since losing the 7 years' war

Americans revolted, independence war started in 1775

Americans signed Declaration of Independence on 7/4/1776

French troops helped American troops win in 1781 as British surrendered

French Revolution

Causes of the French Revolution

  • France had lots of war debts
    • It lost the 7 years' war and the War of Spanish Succession​
  • In 1789, King Louis XVI called a meeting for the Estates General, the parliamentary body that hadn't met since 1614

    • The nobility, clergy, and commoners each get one vote in parliament, despite that the commoners make up the majority of the population

    • Commoners wanted social reform → Formed their own constitution, the National Assembly, giving power to the state (as opposed to the king or the people)

    • Revolutionaries chanted "liberty, equality, fraternity"

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Events of the French Revolution

France had lots of war debts from the 7 years' war, American Revolution, & War of Spanish Succession

King Louis XVI called a meeting for the Estates General in 1789 to discuss implementing taxes

The third Estate (commoners) formed the National Assembly, a government that sought constitutional liberties for the people

Adopted Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen (1789). Gave constitutional liberties to all free men. Abolished feudalism, still kept monarchy, kept power in nation-state

Peasants feared the military would attack them before getting their reforms, so they stormed Bastille prison to acquire weapons. July 14, 1789

National Assembly members met in an indoor tennis court. Agreed to "Tennis Court Oath," agreed not to disband until they receive constitutional liberties

Ratified new constitution with Louis XVI's approval in 1791. 

Wife of Louis XVI (Marie Antoinette) was sister of Austrian emperor. Austria & Prussia declared war on France to restore French monarchy in 1792

Jacobin party (group of Parisian revolutionaries) created a new constitution known as the Convention, declaring France a republic (1792)

Napoleon Bonaparte, a military general in the Directory, overthrew Directory in 1799, established Consulate (consolidated power for himself)

French executed Robespierre on the guillotine. French people created a new constitution called the Directory, which was like a military government (1795)

Maximilien Robespierre created Committee of Public safety to defend against political dissidents & rival nations. Used guillotine to execute dissidents (including Louis XVI). Known as Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

Created Napoleonic Codes, granted civil liberties to men (not women). Reformed agriculture, education, infrastructure

Led army & conquered Spain, Austria, Prussia, Portugal, Italy, Holy Roman Empire by 1810. In 1812, he conquered Moscow but Russian wintertime caused his military to suffer due to a lack of supplies

Sent to exile in Elba (1814), came out of exile later (1815), led French military for 100 days, defeated at Waterloo & sent to exile in remote island of St. Helena (1815). He died in St. Helena (1821). 

Compare & Contrast the 4 Constitutions of French Revolution

National Assembly

Power rested in the nation-state, not the king or the people. Adopted civil liberties for men. Still kept a monarchy but later abolished it. 


Power rested in the people. This was a republic. Made radical changes (10-day week, turned against religion). Used guillotine. Gave more civil liberties to the people


This was a military government. Power was mostly in the military. This had less civil liberties than the Convention. 

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This was a dictatorship. Power was in Napoleon and his army. Gave civil liberties to men though Napoleonic Codes. Reformed education & infrastructure. 

Prince Klemens von Metternich & Congress of Vienna

  • Austrian prince Klemens Von Metternich led Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
    • All major European nations invaded by Napoleon attended
  • Decided that balance of power was needed to prevent rise of another dictator
    • Restored France to pre-Napoleon borders​
    • Restored Monarchy in Spain, France, Netherlands, etc.
    • Didn't grant Enlightenment or revolutionary ideals to French people, essentially erasing all of the French Revolution

Haitian Revolution

Causes of the Haitian Revolution

  • Haiti had 3 social groups: White people, gens de couleur (free people of color), and slaves
    • Haiti was French colony of Saint-Domingue
    • Many whites & gens de couleur were sent to fight in American revolution → Got inspired by revolutionary ideals
    • Many also heard about revolutionary ideals from French Revolution
    • Whites wanted freedom from France & equal rights for them but not for colored people
    • Gens de couleur wanted freedom for themselves but not for slaves
    • Gens de couleur & whites fought over who gets freedom (1791)

Events of the Haitian Revolution

Many Haitian whites & gens de couleur fought in American revolution. Many heard about French Revolution. Both ways, people heard about revolutionary ideals & wanted independence from France. 

Whites & gens de couleur (free blacks) fought over equal rights. Whites wanted freedom for themselves, restricting the gens de couleur

Boukman, a Vodou priest, led slave revolt of 100,000 slaves. This along with rivalry between whites & gens de couleur led to turmoil (1791)

French troops came to Haiti. Sent Louverture to France in 1802 where he died. French troops couldn't fight Haitians as they died of yellow fever

Toussaint Louverture took over after Boukman's death (1791). Led army of slaves, used astute military tactics. Drafted constitution, didn't declare independence

France arrived to restore order in 1792. British & Spanish also came to help Haitians & benefit from France's difficulties, causing turmoil

Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared independence in 1804. Named the land Haiti, "land of mountains"

Spanish South American Revolution

Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808, put his brother Joseph Bonaparte in charge of Spain

Chaos in Spain & Latin America: People didn't know whether to be loyal to Joseph or Spanish crown

Venezuelans rejected Joseph Bonaparte. They put Simón Bolívar in charge of Venezuela, who declared independence in 1811

In 1831, Gran Colombia split into Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela due to regional differences

Bolívar won, created Gran Colombia in 1819, a confederation of states similar to the US. Jose de San Martín of Argentina & Bernardo O' Higgins of Chile helped Bolívar win independence

Royalists (supporters of Spanish rule) in Venezuela opposed independence, leading to civil war with Bolívar's army

Brazilian Revolution

Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807, Portuguese King John VI fled to Brazil & set up his government there

Napoleon was defeated (1815), King John VI returned to Portugal, left his son, Pedro, to rule Brazil

Pedro felt like Brazil was his home. Agreed to demands of other colonists & declared independence from Portugal in 1822

Mexican Independence Movement

Spanish government was weakened after Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808. Miguel Hidalgo led peasant rebellion in Mexico in 1810.

Conservative Mexican creoles & Spanish army put down rebellion & executed him in 1811

Jose Morelos led revolutionaries in victories against loyalists (Mexicans loyal to Spain), Wanted land redistribution to poor, so landowning class executed him in 1815. 

In 1825, southern region seceded, became Central American Federation. In 1838, it broke apart into its individual nations

In 1823, two creoles deposed Emperor Iturbide, established Mexican republic. 

In 1821, Agustín de Iturbide signed Treaty of Cordoba (1821) with Spain, declared Mexican independence. Became first emperor of Mexico

All the Political Revolutions Together

British levied taxes on American colonists. Americans hated this & started American Revolution (1775)

French helped American colonists defeat British in 1781. French joined the war in 1777. 

France had lots of war debts, leading to French Revolution

Gens de Couleur & whites in Haiti fought in American revolution. They also heard about French revolution. Both ways, they were inspired by revolutionary ideals to start Haitian Revolution

Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807

Portuguese king fled to Brazil. This started Brazilian independence movement

Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808

Joseph Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother) took throne of Spain. This led to weakened Spanish monarchy & less control over Spanish colonies, allowing for South American & Mexican independence

Industrial Revolution:


How Britain Started the Industrial Revolution

Why did the British lead the Industrial Revolution?
  • Lots of water access, good for transporting resources like coal, also good to operate water wheels

  • Had lots of natural resources, like coal

  • British had a central bank that could finance development of industrial capital

  • Due to British lead, British government banned the exportation of industrial technology to maintain British economic dominance

Hover for the answer

List of Major Inventions

First Industrial Revolution (1760-1830)

Flying Shuttle

Invented by John Kay (1733), used to speed up cotton weaving

Spinning Jenny

Invented by James Hargreaves (1764), used to spin cotton

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Water Frame

Invented by Paul Arkwright in 1768, uses water power to spin cotton

Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, separates cotton seeds from cotton fiber

Interchangeable Parts

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1798, a concept that multiple factory workers can make individual parts of an item & join them together

Steam Engine

Invented by Thomas Newcomer, James Watt improved it in 1769. Uses burned coal to generate steam to turn a wheel and generate power


Invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, uses steam power to power a ship

Steam-powered Locomotive

Invented by George Stephenson in 1814, uses steam to power a train

Agricultural Revolutions

Enclosure made public lands privately owned. New plowing, seeding, and harvest-reaping machines made farming easier. 

Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)

Bessemer Converter (Makes Steel)



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Internal Combustion Engine








Transformations of Lifestyle

More agricultural innovations

More people worked in factories

Less people needed in farmlands

More migration to cities

Families split up: Women often stayed at home, children worked separately

More people could pursue their own interests & leisure activities

Creation of new middle class

  • In factories, people had hazardous & intense working conditions
    • People worked almost 16 hours a day, 6 days of week
    • Low pay & close supervision from managers, so if work was bad, worker would be beaten or fired
    • Repeating same job over again was hazardous for the muscles
    • Sometimes the air was toxic
    • Many children were forced to work, sometimes even in the coal mines as their fingers could fit into the crevasses of the mine

New Economic and Social Ideologies

  • Adam smith believed in free-market (laissez faire) economics

    • Believed in no government intervention in trade & economics​

      • At this time, many European governments regulated economies & colonial trade

      • Smith wanted more private enterprises to do colonial trade, like the British East India Company

    • Also believed in abolishing trade guilds as they restrict free economics

  • Karl Marx believed that the working class (proletariat) had good opportunities that were taken away by the emergence of capitalism

    • Believed proletariat were exploited by the capitalists (bourgeoisie)

    • Believed competition between capitalists further exploits proletariat

    • Believed leisure activities and religion distract the proletariat from their true subordinate position in society

    • Believed that eventually, the proletariat will revolt and dominate society

    • Believed all instruments of power (police, government) were on the side of the capitalists

    • Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) with these ideas


Labor Unions & Social Reforms

  • People formed labor unions to campaign for better rights

    • Wanted limited working hours, better conditions at the factory​

  • Some reformers formed utopian communities to show how society should be like

    • Limited working hours, provided education for the youth, made work only by desire as opposed to coercion

    • All of these communities eventually disbanded due to high operating costs

  • In 1800s, a group called Luddites protested factory conditions in England​

    • Destroyed factories at night, eventually got arrested

  • British Factory Act (1883) limits working hours in factories, restricts children's work, and makes conditions safer

  • Later, mandatory education laws were passed for children

  • All of these reforms led to a higher standard of living and eventually the abolishment of slavery


How Nations Acquired Natural Resources

European nations colonized other nations

Europeans established export-oriented economies in colonies, forced farmers & miners to produce certain raw materials

Europeans used these raw materials to make manufactured goods

European Imperialism:


Motives & Tools of Imperialism

Economic & Cultural Motives

  • Europeans wanted colonies to supply raw materials for industrial machines
    • Europeans would force farmers & miners to produce raw materials 
    • Europeans would use these raw materials to put in industrial machines 
    • Europeans would then make manufactured goods and sell them to the colonies
    • This way, Europeans completely disrupted the Indian handmade textile industry
  • Europeans had many political motives as well
    • Wanted to put army or naval bases in colonies
    • Sometimes just wanted to take over colonies to prevent other nations from colonizing them
    • Wanted to distract from domestic conflict as Socialists & Communists fought against Industrialists
  • Europeans also wanted to spread Christianity
    • Christian missions served as meeting places for Europeans & distribution centers of goods

  • Europeans used racism to justify imperialism

    • They used social Darwinism, an idea that the Europeans are the fittest and will only survive (comes from Darwinian theory of "survival of the fittest")

    • Believed they are on a civilizing mission to restore social order in the colonies


Technological Tools & Imperial Strategies

  • British used efficient weapons to conquer lands
    • ​Gunpowder was really helpful
    • Europeans used the Maxim gun (a machine gun)
  • Transportation & communications technologies helped
    • The Suez canal made travel from Britain to India much quicker & efficient for the British
    • Railroads were built in colonies to transport raw materials from remote parts to the ports
    • Steamships helped with travel
    • Telegraph lines & submarine cables helped with communication
  • British also exploited tribal & ethnic boundaries
    • They would group multiple rivaling tribes into one colony or split one tribe into multiple colonies

British Imperialism in India

British East India Company Dominance & Sepoy Rebellion

Mughal Empire was weakened after Aurangzeb's death in 1707

British East India Company took advantage of power vacuum & took over some land. Imposed "doctrine of lapse": if local king dies without a son to heir the throne, East India Company takes over 

British hired Indian warriors (sepoys) to help them take over India

By 1858, British easily crushed the rebellion. Queen Victoria established direct imperial rule in India in 1858 (as opposed to British East India Company rule)

In 1857, sepoys revolted because oral contact with animal fat violates Hindu & Muslim laws. 

British gave bullets to sepoys in cartridges greased with pig & cow fat. Sepoys had to bite these cartridges to open them & reload their guns with bullets

British Direct Governance of India

  • British government:
    • ​Local viceroy & bureaucracy staffed by British
    • Some Indians held lower ranking positions
  • British rule transformed & partly destroyed India
    • Built railroads, irrigation, telegraph lines, canals
    • Cleared forests, restructured land holdings
    • Promoted cultivation of export crops like tea & opium

Indian National Congress & Independence Attempts

  • Indian National Congress was created in 1885

    • Led by Jawaharlal Nehru (future first prime minister of India)​
    • In 1906, the All India Muslim League was founded
    • Initially meant to collaborate with the British, but later resented their rule & sought independence
    • Sometimes assassinated colonial officials & bombed British governmental buildings
    • Inspired by Enlightenment thought
  • Ram Mohan Roy sought to create an independent India
    • Wanted more rights & education for women
    • Inspired by Enlightenment principles & Hindu ideals
    • Attracted many upper-class people, including some Muslims

British Dominance of China & Rebellions

Opium Wars

British grew opium in India since 1773. Traded it with China in exchange for silver bullion

Opium was addictive, causing social problems for addicts & the Qing state

China banned opium trade & dumped a British opium cargo in 1839

Qing people were embroiled in internal conflicts & rebellions, & still restricted some trade to British.

Signed Treaty of Nanjing (1842) (unequal treaty). British won rights to Hong Kong & other trading cities. Opium trade was legalized. British annexed Hong Kong in 1843.

British mounted First Opium War (1839-1842) to regain trading rights. British navy used muskets & attacked coastal cities & the Grand Canal

British took advantage of internal turmoil to gain more trading rights & launched Second Opium War (1856-1860)

British easily won, opening up all of China to European trade

Problems with State & Taiping Rebellion

Hong Xiuquan created opposition movement to Qing Dynasty. Known as Taiping "great peace"

Wanted equality between sexes, abolition of private property, free education for all, etc.

Captured Nanjing in 1853, made it his capital, failed to capture Shanghai & Beijing. Millions of people supported him

Cixi crushed the rebellion, & there were many economic problems resulting from the conflict. 20-30 million people died in total

In 1864, Xiuquan died of illness. Cixi's armies killed 100k Taiping rebels & retook Nanjing, ending the rebellion

Empress Dowager Cixi assumed emperor role, formed armies to attack Taiping rebels

Reform Movements & Boxer Rebellion

Chinese people hated foreign involvement in China as Europeans carved spheres of influence in China

Local leaders launched self-strengthening movement to keep Chinese traditions at the base and  Western traditions for use. Built scientific schools, factories, railroads, etc.

Qing government hated this. Did not bring real strength to China. Failed because western traditions often contradict Chinese traditions

Dowager Cixi created Society of Righteous & Harmonious Fists (Boxers). Led anti-foreign rebellion, attacked foreigners & embassies

This failed as Dowager Cixi imprisoned Guangxu & executed other reform leaders (1898)

Emperor Guangxu launched 100 Days' Reform. Added constitutional monarchy, civil liberties, education, more foreign influence, less corruption (1898)

Foreign armies ended Boxer Rebellion in 1901. Chinese had to pay lots of reparations to foreigners for the rebellion's damages

In 1908, Emperor Guangxu died. Cixi died in 1909. 2-year-old Puyi took throne in 1909, but Qing state collapsed in 1912

Compare & Contrast: British presence in India vs China

In India, British established direct rule, whereas in China, British just diplomatically controlled the economy. This is likely because Britain saw it easier to control & transform the economy of India in a beneficial way, while it viewed China as a place that would be costly & difficult to govern due to its vast size. 

European Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Imperialism in Southeast Asia

  • British colonized Burma & Malaya
    • Exploited the rubber and tin of Malaya
    • Founded port of Singapore in 1824, became one of the most prosperous port cities
  • French colonized Indochina
    • Encouraged conversion to Catholicism
    • Sought to spread European values through schools
  • Thailand wasn't colonized as it was a buffer between British Burma & French Indochina

Imperialism in the Pacific

  • James Cook landed in Botany Bay, Australia (1770)
    • Initially became penal colony (convicted criminals came here)
    • Later, more people came here as gold was discovered
    • Believed Australia belonged to no one since Aboriginal people were nomadic, which is why British colonized it
  • British signed Treaty of Waitangi (1840) with Maori of New Zealand
    • Maori believed it would protect them
    • It actually meant that British would colonize them
  • France, Germany, and Britain colonized many Pacific Islands
    • France got Marquesas, Tahiti, New Caledonia
    • Britain made Fiji a crown colony in 1874
    • Germany got Marshall Islands
    • Many islands were used for sugar plantations or other raw materials
    • Only Tonga remained independent but still had some protection from British

European Imperialism in Africa

Scramble for Africa & Berlin Conference

  • In late 1800s, European nations raced to colonize Africa

    • Some imposed direct rule, others had local concessionary companies rule​

    • Often exploited tribal boundaries by grouping rival tribes together or splitting up a tribe into multiple colonies

    • Built railroads & other infrastructure

    • Formed export-oriented economies

  • In 1884, European leaders met at Berlin Conference to discuss rules for colonizing Africa

    • Decided that nations must publicly announce their claims & get permission from local African leader to colonize them​

  • Eventually, all of Africa (except Ethiopia & Liberia) were colonized by Europeans

  • King Leopold II of Belgium created Congo Free State in Central Africa & promoted free trade


British Involvement in Egypt & Suez Canal

Muhammad Ali (Egyptian ruler) industrialized Egypt, borrowed money from Europeans, prepared to declare independence from Ottomans

Egyptian debts were so high, so rulers raised taxes. This led to popular uprising, rebellion, and turmoil

British took advantage of political turmoil & colonized Egypt in 1882. Wanted to gain access to Suez Canal as it provides easy access to India

Migration Throughout Colonies

  • Many Europeans migrated to their nation's colonies
    • Believed there was little living space for them in Europe
    • Wanted more job opportunities
  • Many labor migrations also occurred
    • Indian indentured laborers would travel from India to other British colonies
    • Chinese laborers also traveled to British colonies
    • Colonial subjects often traveled to the colonizer's capital to study



Meiji Restoration

In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry (US navy officer) arrived in Edo with a gunboat to gain trading concessions from Japan

Upon seeing the gunboat, Japanese realized they were lacking behind in technology

In 1868, Tokugawa shogun abdicated, gave throne to Mutsuhito (Meiji). He reformed society, promoted industrialization, imposed constitutional government, removed tariffs. encouraged students to study abroad

Japanese Imperialism

Meiji wanted to get rid of unequal treaties. Conquered many islands near Japan

Defeated Chinese in Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Won Korea, Taiwan, & other Chinese lands. Forced China to sign unequal treaties

Defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Won other territories including Manchuria, making Japan an imperial power



Russia under Tsar Alexander II

Alexander II tried to expand southward into Crimean peninsula & Balkans

Britain, France, Ottoman, Sardinia mounted coalition to prevent Russian expansion in Crimea, sparking Crimean War (1853-1856)

Alexander II emancipated all serfs in 1861 as he believed they'd eventually revolt. Many freed serfs were still in debt as they had to pay for land

Many urban workers hated new factory working conditions & mounted revolts. Government restricted working hours to 11.5 hours a day (1897) & forbade labor unions 

Count Sergei Witte developed a plan to industrialize Russia. Got foreign loans, commissioned trans-Siberian Railroad. Developed steel, coal, petroleum industries

Established zemstvos, government assemblies that debate on societal issues. Had legal reform with trial by jury & no unjust punishments

Many peasants wanted better rights & more land. Group of peasants called intelligentsia mounted revolts. Anarchists wanted local councils & no central government. Police started arresting anarchists & rebels

In 1881, members of the People's Will (group of revolutionaries) bombed Alexander II. 

Russia under Tsar Nicholas II

Nicholas II took power in 1894. Wanted to distract against political & social issues in Russia, expanded eastward into Siberia

Japan was also expanding in Siberia, Russians lost in Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Many people despised the government & revolted aft