APUSH Unit 7: World War 1

Outline
General Timeline
 
General Maps
 

Map # 1: Europe in World War 1

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Map # 2: The US

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Map # 3: Latin America

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Course Content
 

World War 1:

 

US Neocolonialism in Latin America

Roosevelt & Roosevelt Corollary

  • Pres. Theodore Roosevelt expanded his navy as he believed US needed to protect other nations

    • Especially developed navy after Japan started developing its own navy

  • In 1906, Roosevelt was an arbitrator to end the Russo-Japanese War & won Nobel Peace Prize for it

  • Roosevelt added Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

    • US can intervene in domestic affairs in Latin America if it was causing political instability

    • This would ensure US could protect its economic interests in Latin America

  • Intervened in Dominican Republic in 1903 after a revolutionary regime took over & was bad

  • Added Platt Amendment (1901) to Cuban Constitution to make US Cuba's dominant power

    • Intervened in Cuba in 1906 due to domestic issues​

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Panama Canal (1914)

US wanted to build a canal through Isthmus of Panama as the route was short & a French company already started construction

Colombia (who owned Panama at the time) refused to cede the land to the US, so US helped local Panamanians declare independence from Colombia (1903)

Panamanians allowed US to build the canal, completed in 1914

Taft's "Dollar Diplomacy" & Wilson's Intervention in Latin America

  • Pres. William Howard Taft adopted "dollar diplomacy"

    • US would invest money into Latin America in exchange for political influence

    • Invested in Nicaragua in 1909

    • Nicaraguans revolted against pro-American government, so US sent troops to stop it

  • Pres. Woodrow Wilson was more aggressive in Latin America

    • Established a military gov in Dominican Republic in 1916

    • US Marines occupied Haiti from 1915-1934

    • Bought Danish West Indies (fearing Germany might conquer it), named it Virgin Islands

  • Wilson also intervened in Mexican Revolution by supporting one revolutionary leader, Gen. Venustiano Carranza

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The Battles of World War 1

Start of World War 1 in Europe

Europe had many alliances. Triple Alliance (Central Powers) were Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Triple Entente (Allies) were Britain, France, Russia

Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was visiting Serbia. Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip killed Ferdinand

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

Britain declared war on Germany

Germany declared war on Russia & France

Russia wanted to protect Serbia, so it declared war on Austria-Hungary

US's Initial Neutrality

  • Initially, Pres. Wilson sought to remain neutral

    • US had many immigrants from both sides of war

    • US wanted to trade w/ both sides

      • Became complicated as Britain blockaded Germany​

      • Also, German U-boats (submarines) would sink British merchant ships

    • US's economy was booming due to increased production of arms & trade w/ both sides​

  • In 1915, Wilson prepared the army in case of war

  • In 1916, Wilson narrowly won re-election

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US Joins the War

  • Germany started threatening US's trade w/ Britain

    • In May 1915, Germany sunk British ship Lusitania, killing 128 Americans on board

    • Germany kept threatening British & French ships

  • In Jan 1917, Germany sent the Zimmerman Telegram to Mexico, but US intercepted it

    • Germany told Mexico to join the war against US in exchange for helping regain the territories ceded to US in Mexican-American War

    • US intercepted this & hated Germany more

  • In Mar 1917, a communist gov took over Russia & withdrew from the war

    • Now, Germany could focus all its efforts on Western front w/ Britain & France

  • Wilson also gave many loans to the Allies, especially to France

    • Made financial sense for US to help the Allies​

  • French & British needed more ground troops to fight Germany

    • Needed troops from the US

    • After Russia's withdrawal, Germany had more troops to fight them, so Allies needed more troops​

  • Wilson thus told Congress to approve war declaration in Apr 1917, joining the Allies

    • Initially believed it to be a war on democracy​

    • Wanted "Peace without Victory"

US in the War

  • Wilson & Sec of War Newton D Baker passed mandatory conscription laws

    • 3 million men joined the war

      • This was called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)​

        • Led by Gen. John J Pershing

  • Women served auxiliary roles in the military

  • About 400k African-Americans served in the war

    • Many were in non-combat duties

    • Most were in segregated all-Black regiments

  • The war had many brutal weapons

    • Trench warfare became common, caused lots of disease spread​

    • Airplanes were sometimes used, but were in early stage of development

    • Submarines (U-boats) were used to sink boats

  • Germany agreed to armistice in Nov 11, 1918

  • Millions of people died, but only 112k died from US​

The Home Front

The US Economy during the War

  • US spent $32 billion on the war effort

    • Sold "Liberty bonds" to people to finance it​

    • Raised taxes

  • US needed to mobilize its economy to support war

  • In 1917, Wilson created War Industries Board (WIB)

    • Meant to coordinate government purchase of military supplies​

    • Had some management problems

  • War caused US economy to boom

    • Industry boomed due to increased exports​

      • Exported lots of military supplies​

    • Shipbuilding grew in West due to Panama Canal

    • Farming grew due to higher demand for food

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US Economy's Labor Sources During the War

  • Because many men were at war, women & minorities got job opportunities in factories

  • National War Labor Board (est. 1918) sought to resolve labor disputes in industry

    • Imposed 8-hour workday, equal pay for men & women, right for unions to bargain collectively​

    • Workers got some other gains

  • Still, there were some strikes

    • A miner strike in Ludlow, CO led to the Ludlow Massacre (1914), killing 20 strikers

  • 100,000s of African-Americans migrated from Jim Crow South to the North ("Great Migration")​​​

    • Found many job opportunities in industrial cities of the North

    • Many Whites rioted against the Blacks

  • Many Women also joined industrial jobs

    • Unfortunately, they were fired or quit after the war when men returned​

  • Many other minorities (Mexicans, Japanese, etc.) got industrial jobs

    • When white male soldiers returned from the war, they retook these jobs from these minorities​

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Suppressing Dissent & Promoting Wartime Propaganda

  • Many people supported WW1

    • Churches prayed for soldiers

    • Led to anti-German sentiment throughout US

  • Committee on Public Information (CPI) sought to promote pro-war propaganda

    • Promoted pro-war literature & propaganda

    • Depicted crude images of Germans

  • Government passed acts to ban anti-war propaganda

    • Espionage Act of 1917 gave penalties for obstructing or sabotaging war effort

    • Post Office banned seditious stuff (including all socialist stuff) from its mail

    • Sedition Act (1918) banned any public criticism of the war

    • Some vigilantes organized mobs to spy on people for signs of disloyalty to war effort

  • Many Germans were targets of violence

  • Lots of people opposed the war

    • Socialists opposed the war

      • Socialist leaders were jailed

    • Many immigrants opposed the war​

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Post-War Peace

Wilson's 14 Points

  • Pres. Wilson drafted the 14 points in the war, a set of peace agreements meant for after the war​

  • The general agreements are described below:

Readjust borders within Europe

Free trade in the seas & open diplomacy (no secret treaties)

International body of nations (the League of Nations)

  • The main theme of these points is the idea of self-determination

    • The idea where each nation chooses its own type of government

  • There were other flaws

    • Didn't mention economic rivalries and how they can affect free trade in the seas

    • The international organization had some flaws as it relied on collective security

The Paris Peace Conference

  • A conference at Palace of Versailles (France) to discuss the post-WW1 peace agreement

    • David Lloyd George (UK), Georges Clemenceau (France), Wilson (US), and Vittorio Orlando (Italy) were the "Big Four" delegates

  • Wilson presented his 14 points, but many ideas failed

    • Freedom of trade in the seas failed

    • Self-determination failed

  • Wilson also opposed charging the Central Powers for the war, but that failed

    • Britain & France wanted reparations from Germany ($32 billion) for war damage

  • One thing in which Wilson succeeded was the creation of the League of Nations

    • In Jan 1919, they accepted the Covenant of the League of Nations

      • ​Established an international body to resolve disputes​

      • It was flawed as it relied on collective security

        • If one nation is invaded, all other nations must come to its defense

  • All the agreements were passed in the Treaty of Versailles (1919)

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Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles

  • The next obstacle was to get Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

    • In 1918, Republicans won control of both houses, making ratification hard

  • Congress opposed the League of Nations

    • Believed joining an international organization limits US sovereignty​

      • Believed it allows other nations to intervene in the Americas, voiding the Monroe Doctrine​

    • Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge led the opposition to the League of Nations

      • Proposed some modifications to the treaty, but Wilson never approved them​

  • Wilson decided to travel throughout the country to gain support for the Treaty of Versailles

    • This failed

  • In the end, US never joined the League of Nations

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Post-War Problems

Situation in Industry

  • War ended sooner than people expected

    • People produced more goods than needed, causing inflation

    • This led to a small recession in 1920-1921

  • As soldiers came back from the war, they retook their industrial jobs

    • All the women, Blacks, & other minorities that got industrial jobs had to give them back to the White men who came back from war

  • Also, as economy shifted back to normal, employers rescinded previous benefits

    • Rescinded the 8-hour workday, etc.

  • There were many strikes in 1919

    • A shipyard strike in Seattle in Jan 1919 put the city at standstill until US Marines came

    • In Sep 1919, Boston Police Force went on strike

      • Gov. Calvin Coolidge (future President) called National Guard to quell it​

    • In Sep 1919, 350k steelworkers from midwest went on a huge strike

      • Lasted until January

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Situation for African-Americans

  • Many African-Americans felt a feeling of liberty after the war​

    • Fighting in the War encouraged them to fight for their civil rights​

    • This still didn't change Whites' attitudes toward them

  • There were many Race Riots, and hostility toward Blacks increased

    • Lynchings increased in the South

    • Black industrial workers had to give up their jobs to White men returning from war

    • Chicago Race Riot of 1919 killed 38

  • Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican, advocated for Black Nationalism & promoting of Black culture

    • Believed Blacks should be proud of their heritage & promote Black culture

    • United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)

      • Wanted Blacks to go back to Africa​

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The Red Scare

  • Communism was common among American farmers & industrial workers since late 1800s

    • Remained a small movement w/ little potential

  • In 1917, Bolshevik Communist revolution in Russia showed that a communist gov is possible

    • Led many to believe that communists could take over the US eventually

  • Russia formed Communist International (Comintern) to promote communism worldwide

  • Communist Party USA (est. 1919) promoted communism

  • Many states suppressed communism & enacted sedition laws

    • There were also mobs & other violence against communist revolutionaries​

  • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU, est. 1920) promoted that communism was free speech

    • Opposed anti-communist suppression & publicized the actions of anti-communist mobs

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