AP Art History

Unit 4: 1750 - 1980 CE

Later Europe and Americas

Images 98-152

Main Ideas:

  • As Europe and the Americas underwent rapid societal changes (such as urbanization, commercialization, imperialism, political revolutions, and world wars), works of art generally either sought to support or oppose those developments to advocate for greater harmony

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Rococo: Uses elaborate and intricate imagery to depict the extravagant lifestyle of the monarchical classes

  • Enlightenment: Most artworks serve the purpose of encouraging people to accept new developments in science and learning, such as allowing women to get an education
  • Neoclassicism: Uses classical artistic and architectural (from Greek & Roman times) elements to showcase certain individuals as embodying the classical ideals of honor
  • Romanticism: Exaggerates certain features of a landscape or object by increasing their texture, size, or spotlight to emphasize its importance in conveying a message

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Realism, Photography, Revivalist Art: Uses realistic depictions to showcase problems in society or new social/technical advancements in society

  • Impressionism: Uses light brushwork to allow light, color, and shadowing to influence the message and purpose of an artwork
  • Post-Impressionism: A painting of a landscape that's not en plein air: The artist paints a landscape and slightly alters it with a common pattern based on the artist's own emotions toward the landscape
  • Fin De Siecle, Sculpture, and Architecture: Depicts people or other objects in a realistic way but alters it to emphasize its function over form (so that it's easy for us to understand the object's purpose, composition, or emotion)

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • General Idea: During & After WW1, artists rejected realism and sought to use logic and rational reasoning to create artwork that promoted harmony and order
  • Cubism: Decomposes subjects into geometric shapes representing different perspectives, allowing people to more easily find meaning in the artwork

  • Fauvism: Color is not meant to describe a certain feeling but rather exists independent of any description so that we can interpret the meaning of the colors on our own
  • German Expressionism: Allowed people to find their own emotions and ideas in the artworks as inspiration to bring out change in society
  • Architectural Modernism: Promoted a rational simplistic approach to architectural design where the form of a structure is based on its function
  • De Stijl: Reduced art to its bare essential forms to advocate for more harmony and a reduction of society to its basic fundamentals after WW1

  • Suprematism & Constructivism: Combined many different symbolic images, shapes, and colors into one large artwork to convey a revivalist theme
  • Surrealism: Used different elements that tap into our subconscious mind when looking at the artwork
  • Dadaism: Rejected true logic and reason and sought to express themselves through nonsensical artworks
  • Modernism in the Americas: Reflected European modernism but was more about promoting harmony  between social classes & genders as Americans generally spoke out about those issues more than Europeans did

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • General Idea: After WW2, artists sought to reject logic and used unconventional thought processes to create artworks that represent the artists' subconscious feelings
  • Abstract Expressionism: Uses abstract marks in a disorganized way to convey a theme about a subject

  • Pop Art: Showcases a certain subject in a flashy way (with bright colors and no shadows) to criticize or subjugate that subject
  • Minimalism: Uses basic materials in a repetitive way to promote a feeling of meditation
  • Color Field: Does not depict any subjects but rather mixes color bands together to allow the viewer to examine the tension or agreement between the different colors
  • Land Art: Rejected commercialization & urbanization and sought to promote the idea of the Earth and nature as a home for humanity

  • Postmodern Architecture: Rejected the formality of earlier times and used random forms and sculptures that were unrelated to the function or structure of the building