top of page

Time Period 2: 1648 - 1815

General Outline
General Timeline
Euro TP 2 Timeline.png
General Maps

Map # 1: Europe

Euro TP 2 Map #1.png

Map # 2: Americas & Atlantic Ocean

Euro TP 2 Map #2.png
Course Content

Absolutism & Constitutionalism:

A & C


Origins of English Civil War

  • When Elizabeth I took over English crown in 1588, she didn't give anyone else power

    • She didn't marry, so she didn't have an heir to the throne​

  • After Elizabeth I, James I took over, then Charles I

    • Both James I & Charles I believed in "divine right" of kings

      • Believed they had absolute authority & god gave them right to rule

    • Both didn't give parliament any power

    • After tensions from 30 Years' war, Charles I didn't summon Parliament after 1629

  • There were also religious tensions among monarchs & Parliament

    • In 1534, King Henry VIII established Anglican Church

    • Puritans (devout Protestants) wanted to purify Anglicanism of all its Catholic elements

    • Most members of Parliament were Puritans

  • Charles I made religious tensions worse

    • Charles I married a Catholic princess

    • He praised Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud)

    • Laud attempted to impose a new Anglican prayer book with some Catholic elements

      • Scottish Presbyterians (Protestant) rejected these teachings


English Civil War (1642-1649)

Presbyterians in Scotland revolted against Catholic policies of Charles I

Charles I levied random taxes to raise money to crush the rebellion. He also called Parliament in 1640 (first time since 1629) to discuss how to crush the revolt

Parliament enacted laws to limit the power of the king to give more power to Parliament. Restored some Anglican ideals. Called "Long Parliament" as it met from 1640-1660

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Parliament refused to help Charles I fight the rebellion because Charles I repealed the laws meant to limit his power

Charles I needed money from Parliament to fight the rebellion. However, Charles I had repealed some of the laws made in the "Long Parliament" meant to limit his power

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Irish Catholics resented Anglican ideals that were reinstated in the "Long Parliament." They mounted Irish Rebellion of 1641

Charles I formed an army to attack some Parliament members. Parliament thus formed an army (New Model Army) under Oliver Cromwell

Parliament's army defeated Charles's army in many battles in 1645. Cromwell captured Charles I in 1647

Oliver Cromwell (Puritan) took over English crown in 1649. Gave power to Parliament, banned Catholicism

Stuart Restoration (1660)

Oliver Cromwell died

Charles II took over & restored the monarchy (less power to Parliament) & restored Anglicanism

Glorious Revolution (1689)

Charles II died (1685)

James II took over. He was Catholic & promoted Catholicism (appointed Catholics in government, built Catholic schools, etc.)

Parliament & Anglican people hated Catholic ideals of James II, so they put his daughter Mary & her husband William in power

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

William & Mary ended "divine right" of kings. Signed Bill of Rights, giving more power to Parliament. Still persecuted Catholics.  Developed cabinet system to oversee Parliament. This was a constitutional monarchy

Many supporters of James II, mostly Catholics, mounted rebellions. William & Mary crushed all of these


  • Established constitutional government

  • Had 7 provinces (Estates) with a general assembly of all the estate leaders (States General)

    • Each Estate was ruled by oligarchy of wealthy businessmen

    • Each Estate could veto any proposed legislation

  • Holland was the largest & richest Estate, it dominated States General

  • Provinces of Netherlands were successful due to their economic prosperity

    • Had religious toleration, allowed Jews because of their expertise in business​

    • Used money carefully, attracted lots of foreign capital & investment

    • Used profits from fishing to finance shipbuilding, giving it the lowest shipping rates in Europe

    • Highest standard of living, plenty of food, few riots



French Absolutism

  • Henry IV founded Bourbon dynasty in 1589

    • Issued Edict of Nantes (1598), allowing Protestants to practice their religion in 150 cities

    • Improved infrastructure, led economic recovery

    • Murdered in 1610 by Catholics

  • In 1610, his son, Louis XIII, took over

    • Cardinal Richelieu became his minister

      • Expanded French army, collected taxes, increased French power​

      • Allied with Protestants to defeat Catholic Habsburgs in 30 Years' War (1618-1648)

  • In 1643, his son, Louis XIV, took over

    • He was 4 years old at the time, so his mom & Cardinal Jules Mazarin helped him​

    • Mazarin continued Richelieu's policies of economic & political growth

      • He failed to increase royal revenues to support war costs, leading to popular uprisings (known as Fronde)

    • Louis XIV took over from his mom & Mazarin & established absolute authority in 1651

      • Known as "sun king," claimed "divine right​"

        • Believed God justified his rule & he was responsible only to god​

      • Instituted many ministries but took part in all their decisions

      • Revoked Edict of Nantes in 1685, sought to suppress Huguenots (French Protestants)

        • Ordered Huguenots to convert to Catholicism or exile themselves

  • In 1682, Louis XIV built Palace of Versailles

    • Ordered all nobles & ministers to live there

    • Queen & noble women glorified & advised him

    • Had elaborate ceremonies to glorify himself

    • Commissioned lots of art


French Decline in Wars

  • Jean-Baptiste Colbert was Louis XIV's financial advisor

    • Believed in mercantilism (a fixed amount of wealth in the world)

    • Believed France needs to export more than its imports to become wealthy

    • Encouraged French to produce more to limit imports & maximize exports

    • Imposed tariffs on foreign imports

  • Colbert encouraged domination of Canada to gain its wealth

    • Sent colonists to Canada to extract is resources

    • French explorers sailed down Mississippi river, landed at its mouth in 1684

      • Named this land Louisiana after Louis XIV​

  • During Louis XIV's reign, France was nearly always involved in wars

    • Francois le Tellier helped boost the French army​

    • Sought to revert France to its original borders

      • Conquered many regions from Netherlands & Germany

    • Strained France's resources

  • France lost in War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713)

    • Charles II of Spain died & his successor, Philip of Anjou, was grandson of Louis XIV

    • A previous treaty said Spain would be divided among France & Holy Roman Empire after Charles II's death

    • English, Dutch, Austrians, Prussians formed Grand Alliance against Louis XIV as they hated the prospect of an alliance between Spain & France

    • Treaty of Utrecht (1713) said Philip of Anjou can inherit throne but can't combine with France

      • France also lost many territories to Britain​


Absolutism in Austria & Prussia

Absolutism in Austria

  • In Eastern Europe, serfdom was common & brutal

    • Lords had all rights to their serfs: Could sell them & split families, jail them, etc.

    • Growth of agriculture led to more exploitation of serfs

  • Ferdinand II of Habsburgs sought to expand his rule

    • Since Habsburgs lost authority in Central Europe after 30 Years' War, they looked to Eastern Europe​

    • Consolidated hold on Bohemia easily because Habsburgs defeated Bohemia in 30 Years' War

      • Established Catholic rule there​

    • Removed Ottomans from Hungary in 1718

      • Hungarians agreed to accept Habsburg rule in exchange for retaining privileges of Hungarian aristocrats​

    • Established German as official language, Catholic as official religion

    • Vienna was capital, Schonbrunn Palace was residence of emperor

Schloss-Schonbrunn-Vienna (1).jpg

Absolutism in Prussia

  • Frederick I, King of Prussia, unified his 3 provinces (Brandenburg, Prussia, Rhine) in 1640

    • Each province was ruled by wealthy landowners called Junkers

    • Frederick I persuaded Junkers to raise taxes to finance Frederick's army in exchange for giving Junkers the right to control their privileges

    • Expanded his army with the taxes, crushed all opposition to his rule in nearby towns

  • In 1713, his son became emperor Frederick William I of Prussia

    • Transformed Prussia into a military state, forced all men to undergo military training​

    • Built bureaucracy, fostered economic development



Ivan III & Ivan IV

  • Before 1480, Russian states were forced to pay tribute to the Mongols

  • In 1480, Ivan III of the Muscovy State (present-day Russia) declared independence from Mongols

  • Ivan III's son, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) took over after

    • Added lots of territories to Mongol empire, used some serfs to help him

    • Executed all dissidents

    • Many serfs revolted against cruel rule & formed warrior bands (cossacks)

    • Ivan IV responded by decreasing rights of serfs & tying them closer to landlords

  • In 1584, Ivan IV died, leading to the Time of Troubles (1584-1613), where multiple lords competed for power

    • Cossacks revolted for more food & better treatment but were easily crushed​

  • Ivan IV's grandson, Michael Romanov, took the throne in 1613, start of Romanov dynasty (1613-1917)

    • Gave landlords full rights over serfs, extended serfdom to all peasants​

    • Crushed the largest serf rebellion in 1671


Reforms of Peter I (Peter the Great)

  • Sought to Westernize Russia

    • Led Russian army into Western European capitals to learn about Western military techniques​

    • Forced Russians to wear Western clothes, shave their beards, etc.

  • Sought to gain access to Baltic Sea

    • Entered Secret alliance with Poland & Denmark to take some Baltic coastline from Sweden

    • Swedish army defeated Russians, sparking Great Northern War (1700-1721)

    • Peter I westernized Russian army & strengthened it to defeat Swedish in 1721 & gain access to Baltic Sea

    • Peter I built St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea


Ottoman Empire

  • Ottoman Empire in Anatolia had religious tolerance

    • Provided Muslims, Jews, Christians a safe place to flee from persecution

  • Ottomans recruited Christian boys to join the janissaries (Ottoman army)

  • All land was property of the state, so peasants paid taxes to use it

  • Istanbul was the capital of the Ottoman Empire

    • Home to Topkapi palace, where the sultan lived

    • Sultan had many concubines, each produced one male heir who would govern the provinces

download (4).jpeg

Scientific Revolution:


Origins of Scientific Revolution

  • Previously, people believed in Aristotle's & Ptolemy's astronomical views

    • Believed Earth was center of universe & other bodies rotated around the Earth

    • Believed force moved an object at a constant speed & removing force stops the object

    • Believed planets orbit around the Earth in epicycles (series of semicircular-shaped orbits)

  • These ideas were readily adopted by society as they fit nicely into the Christian doctrine

  • As Islamic scholars acquired these Aristotelian views, they added their own commentary on it & spread it throughout Europe

  • The growth of medieval European universities led to the spread of these ideas


Discoveries in Scientific Revolution


  • In early 1500s, Nicolaus Copernicus developed the heliocentric model (sun is center of universe)

    • Believed Earth & other planets orbit the sun

    • Believed stars are still

    • Some Protestants supported him, but Catholic church declared it false in 1616

      • Catholics believed that Earth was unique compared to other planets so it must be in the center of universe

  • In 1576, Tycho Brahe built an observatory in Denmark, funded by the Danish King

    • The Holy Roman Emperor funded another observatory for him in Prague

    • Brahe made Rudolphine Tables, a series of tables with measurements & observations on planetary motion he observed

  • After Brahe's death, his assistant, Johannes Kepler, used his tables to make discoveries

    • Kepler discovered that planetary orbits are elliptical & increase in speed when closer to sun

    • Also studied optics & explained eye refraction

    • Made astrological discoveries which many believed to be false, harming his reputation

  • Galileo Galilei used experimentation & scientific method to make discoveries

    • Created idea of experimentation: Proving major concepts using small-scale experiments

    • Discovered law of inertia using experimentation​

      • Rolled a ball down a hill to prove this

    • Discovered that force causes acceleration, disproving Aristotelian physics

    • Officially declared a heretic in 1633 by Pope Urban VIII

  • Isaac Newton studied forces of the universe

    • Created law of universal gravitation, published his findings in Principia Mathematica


Other Sciences

  • Francis Bacon developed idea of research & scientific experiments to prove new knowledge

    • Created idea of collecting & analyzing samples

    • Created idea of empericism: New discoveries require evidence from experimentation instead of speculation​ (using reason instead of concrete experiments)

  • Rene Descartes used speculation to develop his ideas

    • Speculation / rational reasoning is the idea of developing theories through direct observation instead of actual experimentation & proof

    • Discovered that algebra & geometry are related

  • In 1628, William Harvey discovered blood circulation

    • Previously, Ancient Greek Physician named Galen believed the body had 4 substances; Believed sickness was imbalance of these substances

    • Harvey discovered that the heart pumps blood throughout our body, explaining the functions of our muscles & valves

  • Robert Boyle discovered Boyle's Law (1662): Pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume


Natural History

  • As Europeans explored the world, scientists studied the plants & animals of those places

    • Discovered that some plants can be ​used as medicine or food

    • Many discovered exotic plants & animals and brought them home

    • King Philip II of Spain commissioned many scientists to study the advantages of plants & animals in the New World


List of Important People in Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus

First person to propose heliocentric model (in which all planets orbit the sun instead of the earth). 

Galileo Galilei

Used telescope, proved heavenly bodies (sun, moon, Venus, etc.) aren't spherical & smooth like Bible claims. Proved law of inertia. 

Johannes Kepler

Proved planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular. 

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Isaac Newton

Proved the forces of universal gravitation that govern the universe. 

William Harvey

Discovered blood circulation. Studied anatomy, discovered that women's bodies are useless compared to men's bodies. 

Tycho Brahe

Built two observatories. Created Rudolphine Tables, which were tables depicting the position of various astronomical bodies at certain times. Influenced Kepler's work. 

Robert Boyle

Created Boyle's Law, saying that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume. 

Francis Bacon

Created idea of empericism, using experimentation instead of speculation to prove discoveries. 

Rene Descartes

Created the idea of speculation to prove discoveries. Proved the relationship between algebra & geometry. 

Effect of Scientific Revolution

  • Scientific Revolution led people to undermine Catholic teachings

    • Most of the discoveries undermined Catholic ideas about the universe​

    • Scientific Revolution coupled with Protestant Revolution led many to convert to Protestantism

  • Scientific Revolution led many people to create societies that discuss various scientific discoveries

    • States sponsored academies of science, which discussed the newest scientific discoveries

    • England created the Royal Society, an academy of science

  • Scientists created a new faith called deism

    • This is the idea that god created the universe but didn't intervene in its affairs

    • Believed that the natural forces of the universe govern our universe instead of god




Origins of Enlightenment Thought

  • After Scientific Revolution, people sought to use rational reasoning instead of faith to promote human progress

    • Sought to promote human rights without using religion to justify society

  • Philosophers were known as philosophes

  • Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) believed rulers shouldn't use religion to justify their rule

    • Believed in a strong monarch & distinct social classes, but believed everyone should be free

  • John Locke believed all free men have inalienable rights of life, liberty, pursuit of property

    • Believed government must guarantee these rights, or else the people can overthrow it

  • Denis Diderot wrote an encyclopedia combining all Enlightenment thought

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract (1762)

    • Believed society should be organized according to the general will & common interests of the people


List of Enlightenment Thinkers

Thomas Hobbes

Believed men are evil & prone to violent warfare. Believed a strong ruler was necessary to prevent war-like behavior of men. 

John Locke

Believed all men have rights of life, liberty, and pursuit of property. Believed ruler must guarantee these rights or else people can overthrow the ruler. 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Believed all men are free & society should organize itself according to majority rule & the will of the general public. 

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)

Believed in religious tolerance. Believed rulers shouldn't use religion to justify their rule. 

Baron de Montesquieu

Believed government should have a checks & balances system to prevent it from becoming too powerful. 

Denis Diderot

Wrote Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts, an encyclopedia compiling information on Enlightenment thought. 

Influence of Enlightenment Thought

  • Enlightenment led to a slight reform in the church

    • Italian Enlightenment led to a decline in excessive penalties for violating religious law

  • Scottish Enlightenment emphasized common sense & rational reasoning

    • Eventually led to mandatory education for children (first European nation to implement it)

    • Led to lots of intellectual growth in Scotland

  • Enlightenment thought spread via books

    • People read & discussed Enlightenment thought in salons

  • Enlightenment thinkers justified racism

    • Believed humans were one race but organized themselves into a hierarchy, with Europeans at the top & Africans at bottom​


Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia & Seven Years' War (1756-1763)

Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great), son of Frederick William I, expanded into Austria 

Queen Maria Theresa of Austria hated this as it violated the treaty made by the War of Austrian Succession

Maria Theresa allied with France & Russia against Prussia & Britain, known as 7 Years' War (1756-1763). Britain & Prussia won

  • Frederick II used idea of enlightened absolutism in Prussia

    • He was still the monarch with absolute authority, but he gave freedom of religion to his subjects (Enlightenment principles)

    • Reformed legal system, promoted rebuilding of infrastructure & economy after 7 years' war

  • Used idea of cameralism in government

    • This was the German form of mercantilism

    • Believed in more centralization of economy

Catherine the Great of Russia

  • She became empress of Russia after murdering her husband, Peter III

    • Peter III ruled Russia during 7 years' war & was in a coalition against Prussia

    • Peter III wanted to withdraw his troops from the war, making him unpopular, so Catherine easily killed him & became empress of Russia

  • Sought to impose Western standards in Russia (just like Peter I)

    • Brought western architects & intellectuals

    • Patronized Enlightenment thinkers

  • Imposed enlightenment principles in Russia

    • Put a new law code with Enlightenment reforms

    • Imposed educational reforms

  • After a serf, Yemelian Pugachev, led a huge serf rebellion (1773-1774), she tightened control over serfs

    • Gave nobles more control over serfs & liberated nobles from state service & taxes


Austrian Habsburgs

  • After losing 7 Years' War, Maria Theresa imposed reforms to strengthen her state

    • Limited religious influence, decreased religious holidays & pope's influence

    • Taxed nobles, made central bureaucracy, reduced power of lords

    • Improved agricultural production

  • After her death, her son, Joseph II, took over

    • Abolished serfdom in 1781, allowed peasants to pay landlords in cash instead of labor

  • After Joseph II's death, his brother, Leopold II, took over

    • Repealed Joseph II's radical edicts, made peasants pay landlords in labor again


Question about Jews

  • While Enlightenment principles sought freedom for all, Jews were mostly restricted in their freedom

  • Some monarchs gave freedom to Jews, while others opposed it

  • Jews were expert businessmen due to their connections with other Jews throughout Europe

  • Catherine the Great of Russia forced all Jews to live in the a space called the Pale of Settlement from 1791-1917

What was the drawback of Enlightened Absolutism?

Enlightened absolutism sought to give civil liberties to the citizens while retaining the absolute monarchical authority of the ruler. This was limited in its scope because the rulers could not always give full rights to peasants or minorities. For example, Catherine the Great of Russia tightened control over serfs after the Pugachev Rebellion. Similarly, Leopold II of Austria repealed some peasants' rights due to the problems caused by the liberation of peasants. Furthermore, the question about Jews was a problem, and liberating Jews often led to protests & public outrage. 

18th Century European Society:


18th Century Economics & Demographics

18th Century Agriculture

  • The open-field system was widely used

    • Farmers would divide fields into 3 plots & only cultivate on 2 plots to allow the 3rd plot to replenish its nutrients

    • American food crops (e.g. Potatoes) would replenish soil while being cultivated, allowing for more food

    • More food allowed for more hay & more animals, which allowed for more meat, dairy, and livestock to pull heavy ploughs

  • Idea of enclosure developed

    • Peasants wanted their own individual plots instead of a shared plot

    • Some peasants hated this due to the small amount of land received

    • Some peasants wanted this as they could experiment with new scientific methods of increasing crop yields

  • Netherlands & Britain led agricultural innovation

    • Netherlands had high population density, so it needed to maximize its crop yield

    • Netherlands developed irrigation techniques, that were later brought to Britain & the rest of Europe


Industrious Revolution (Putting-out System)

  • Industrious Revolution refers to a transition into something called the putting-out system

    • A system where urban merchants would give raw materials to rural workers to make textiles

    • The rural workers would give the finished textiles to urban merchants for a small wage

  • Life of rural workers was hard during this time

    • Wages were so low that rural workers had to constantly work

    • Punishments for low-quality work or stealing a bit of yarn were severe

  • This revolution led to more demand for textiles

    • People had a bit more income due to working harder & employing more family members​

    • Extra income not used for food was used for buying more textiles

  • Transformed family relations in rural households

    • Males would often do weaving while women & children would do spinning

    • One cotton weaver needed to be complemented by 4-5 cotton spinners


18th Century Population Patterns

  • Previously, population growth was largely stable

    • Population was dense, so there was little space to accommodate for more people

    • Population grew a little each year, but other factors caused it to decline & stabilize

      • Famine, war, and disease were the limiting factors in population growth​

  • In late 1700s & 1800s, population started to grow again

    • Growth of rural industry allowed rural women to have more children​

    • Improvements in sewage & infrastructure limited spread of disease

    • Inoculation against smallpox helped reduce spread of smallpox

    • American food crops (especially potatoes) helped increase food supply


18th Century Economics & Adam Smith

  • Previously, merchant guilds were really common

    • Guilds were groups of merchants specializing in a certain trade

    • Guilds would set prices, care for each other in time of sickness, collaborate together on crafts

    • Often restricted membership to skilled people & had a membership fee

  • Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, believed in abolishing guilds

    • He advocated for free-market economics, where people pursue their own interests without any tariffs & trade barriers

    • Believed guilds restrict people who aren't build members from conducting business

    • Believed government should not restrict trade

  • Slowly, due to Adam Smith's ideology, guilds started disappearing


18th Century Society, Culture, & Art

Nuclear Family & Children's Roles

  • The idea of a nuclear family developed as children became more autonomous from their parents

    • Nuclear family is when only children & parents live in a household, no grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc.

    • People married late as they needed enough money to support children

    • Some peasants waited for their fathers' death so they could inherit the land

    • People had more autonomy from their parents, so they could choose their marriage partner, often leading to premarital sex

    • Premarital sex led to illegitimate births due to the lack of reliable contraception

      • Sometimes these were illegal or punishable in rural villages

      • Many of these were kept in orphanages

  • Children often did some household work before joining the urban trades

    • Often did weaving/spinning at home

    • Later did apprenticeships in merchant guilds in certain crafts

  • Same-sex relations & prostitution became common

    • Prostitution & brothels were common, & some women earned a living this way

      • These were illegal, so police would shut these down if caught​

    • Same-sex relations became common even though the Bible prohibited it

      • Same-sex subculture for men became common in urban centers

  • Views toward children changed significantly

    • Before, children were not cared much about due to their high mortality rate​

    • Enlightenment thought taught that parents should have more tenderness & love toward their children

    • Women would often breastfeed their children for 2-3 years

    • Sometimes, urban women would send their children to rural wet-nurses, who would breastfeed their children for them for 2-3 years

    • Many children received an education, especially religious education


Leisure Activities & Religious Beliefs

  • People read more books as literacy increased

    • Some pamphlets, called chapbooks, talked about religious stories

    • Other books were about comedy & other subjects

  • Other recreational activities were really common

    • Rural families often sang songs & danced around a fireplace

    • Urban people would go to festivals and drink, see acrobats, music, etc.

  • New foods & more income led to a consumer revolution

    • American food crops enriched the diets of peasants​

    • Peasants used milk to make cheese & butter to sell in the market

    • Wealthy people ate meat & fish

    • More people bought textiles & clothing as it became cheaper & income increased

    • Infrastructure in the house improved

    • Hygienic standards also improved

      • Public baths, streets, etc. were all cleaner

  • Religion became the center of society

    • Local parish churches held many celebrations & were centers of towns​

    • State often had more power over the church

    • Catholic monarchs gained power, weakening the papal authority

    • Protestant Revival was where protestants emphasized prayer & devotion to god

    • Catholicism gained followers as Jesuits preached devoutly & Catholic churches became important centers of society

    • Some rural villages marginally believed in Christianity & held some pagan beliefs


Developments in Medicinal Practices

  • More skilled physicians developed

    • Previously, physicians believed sicknesses were results of the devil

    • Now, physicians were skilled & trained & actually took their job seriously

  • Improvements in surgery also developed

    • Many surgeons were trained on the battlefield & often burned the flesh above the wound to lower the chance of death

    • Now, surgeons actually took their job seriously

    • However, painkillers didn't exist, so many people died in shock from surgeries

    • Also, surgeries were unsanitary as no knowledge of bacteria or infections existed

  • Midwives, women that assist in childbirth, were common as well

    • People later started to question their usefulness, leading to a slight decline in their numbers​

  • In 1796, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for preventing smallpox

    • He inoculated patients with cowpox to prevent smallpox



  • Romanticism was an artistic & literary movement meant to undo the changes made by the Enlightenment

    • Enlightenment was more literal & rational, while Romanticism was more supernatural & figurative​

    • Enlightenment was more secular, while romanticism was often religious

    • Enlightenment was more rational, while romanticism was more emotional

  • Romantic art often displayed excess emotion & love

    • Artists would display their skills with lots of emotion & ​talent

    • Often meant to appeal to people's emotions & take people on an adventure

  • Romantic literature depicted supernatural subjects & exotic settings

    • Often used by nations to ​depict national history in an exuberant & exotic way

  • Romantic music appealed to our senses & emotions

    • Adding more instruments to the orchestra created more musical landscapes that evoke our emotions

    • Music became more sublime

    • Music also was used outside of church services


Political Revolutions:


Origins of Political Revolutions

Seven Years' War & Rise of British Power

  • Britain took power away from Dutch, French, and Spanish in late 1600s & early 1700s

    • Oliver Cromwell issued Navigation Acts (1651): All British imports must come on British ships

      • This hurt Dutch shipping, and the 3 Anglo-Dutch wars that followed further hurt the Dutch's power

    • Britain built its navy & sought to compete with France & Spain​​

      • After War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), Britain won many territories owned by France & Spain (including many in the New World)

    • All of these gave Britain more power than other European nations

  • The 7 Years' War (1756-1763) further increased British power

    • It started in Austria when Prussian King Frederick II invaded Austria

    • Britain allied with Prussia against France, Austria, and Russia

    • 7 Years' War was also fought in the Americas between Britain & France, known as the French and Indian War (1754-1763)

    • Britain won both wars, giving it more power over France in colonial ventures


Spread of Enlightenment Thought in Americas

  • Descendants of Europeans in the Americas, known as creoles, started resenting European rule

    • Most creoles have lived in the Americas for many generations

    • Identified closer with the Americas than with Europe

    • Sometimes, Europeans married indigenous Americans or African-American slaves, forming mestizo (mixed) societies

      • These also resented European rule

  • Enlightenment thought spread to the Americas

    • Believed in the ideas of human progress, leading to more criticism of colonialism​

      • Studied ideals of John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, etc., wanted autonomy & self-government


American Revolution

Britain had lots of war debts from the 7 Years' War (1756-1763)

Britain levied many taxes on the American colonists to raise funds. Most notable were the Stamp Act, Tea Act, & Townshend Act

American colonists revolted, thought it was unfair they were being taxed when they have no representation in British Parliament. Chanted "no taxation without representation!"

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

In 1781, Britain surrendered as it was already engaged in some wars & lost a lot of power. Signed Treaty of Paris (1783)

American colonists signed Declaration of Independence (1776). France joined the war on the American side as it resented the British after losing the 7 Years' War

War of independence started in 1775 as American colonists attacked the British. Thomas Paine published a pamphlet, Common Sense, to encourage colonists to keep fighting

French Revolution

Origins of French Revolution

  • France had lots of war debts, which it couldn't easily fix

    • France was involved in 7 Years' War & American Revolution, contributing to its war debts

    • France didn't have paper money nor a central bank, so it couldn't print more money

  • French monarchy was also weakening

    • Usually mistresses advised the king, but Louis XV hated his mistress​

    • Louis XVI took over in 1774 after Louis XV died

      • He was really incompetent

  • Louis XVI sought to raise taxes to compensate for the war debts

    • He needed approval of the parliamentary body, Estates General, before raising taxes​

    • Estates General hadn't met since 1614

    • Estates General has 3 groups: Clergy, Nobility, Commoners

      • Each group only has one vote even though commoners make up 95% of population

unnamed (1).jpg

French Revolution under National Assembly

Louis XVI called the Estates General to meet in 1789 

Third Estates (commoners) formed National Assembly, a constitutional monarchy with civil liberties

National Assembly members met in an indoor tennis court. Agreed to "Tennis Court Oath," agreed not to disband until they receive constitutional liberties

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Adopted Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen (1789). Gave constitutional liberties to all free men. Abolished feudalism, kept monarchy

Peasants continued to attack nobles & lords as they wanted better rights. Known as Great Fear

Peasants were angered due to poor harvest & high bread price. They stormed Bastille prison to acquire weapons as they feared the French monarch would attack them

Aristocrats & nobles left France as they feared being attacked. Their absence caused economy to decline

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

7,000 women marched from Paris to Versailles, demanding lower prices of bread

In 1791, King Louis XVI agreed to sign constitution giving National Assembly its rights. Had enlightenment values, religious toleration, not many women's rights

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

French monarchy fled Paris to evade the violence. Kings of Austria & Prussia signed Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), agreeing to help restore French monarchy

Established new national church, adopted Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790), an oath that all clergy must take. Pope disagreed with the oath, so only 1/2 of French clergy took the oath

Many women (and also men) believed women should get equal rights. Olympe de Gouges published Declaration on the Rights of Woman, believing women are free

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

National Assembly declared war on Habsburg King Francis II in 1792. Marched to Palace of Tuileries where the king fled & imprisoned him (second revolution)

People feared Prussia would invade France, so they started killing aristocrats & priests (September Massacres)

Popularly-elected National Convention, a new constitution, replaced the National Assembly, declaring France a republic

French Revolution under Convention & Directory

In Sept 1792, popularly-elected National Convention replaced National Assembly, made France a republic (power was in people not monarch)

Convention was dominated by Jacobin club, a group of Parisians that debated about politics. Divided among Girondists (opposed killing Louis XVI & The Mountain (supported killing Louis XVI)

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Leader of the Mountain, Maximilien Robespierre, killed King Louis XVI in Jan 1793 with guillotine

Mountain gained support of the poor laborers (known as sans-culottes) & took over Girondists in the Convention

Drafted people into military. Peasants hated military drafting & led Vendee Rebellion (1793-1796)

Declared war on Britain, Netherlands, and Spain (in addition to Prussia & Austria)

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Robespierre used guillotine to execute everyone who opposed the Convention (Reign of Terror (1793-1794)). Executed Olympe de Gouges

Made radical changes: Suppressed Catholic rituals & beliefs, promoted secular rituals. Established new calendar with 10-day week

In 1795, middle-class revolutionaries tried to kill Robespierre. Wanted more power for upper classes (Thermodirian Reaction)

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Many people hated the Directory's corruption as it only focused on war efforts. In 1799, a military general, Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory, established the Consulate

These middle-class revolutionaries established the Directory (1795). Only property-owning men had privileges. This was a military government

French Revolution under Napoleon

In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, a military general, overthrew the Directory & established the Consulate, a military dictatorship

Created Napoleonic Codes (1804), granting civil liberties to all men but not women. Appealed to peasants by allowing them to keep the land they gained during the revolution

Revived Catholicism in France. Signed Concordat of 1801 with Pope Pius VII, gaining the right to elect French bishops

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

British fleet destroyed French at Battle of Trafalgar (1805)

Signed Treaty of Amiens (1802) with Britain. Gained parts of Dutch Republic, Austrian Netherlands, Italy

Defeated Austria, Signed Treaty of Luneville (1801), gained parts of Italy & Germany

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Napoleon defeated Third Coalition (Austria, Russia, Sweden, Britain) at Battle of Austerlitz (1805), causing it to collapse

Established protectorate over 15 German states (Confederation of the Rhine) (1806)

Defeated Prussia, signed Treaties of Tilsit (1807), Prussia & Russia would help France by blockading British goods

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Britain supported guerillas in Spain against France & imposed counter-blockade on France, causing Continental System to fail. Also, Alexander I of Russia renounced blockade of British goods

Conquered Spain in 1808, made it a French satellite as part of the Grand Empire

Made Continental System: No ship from Britain or its colonies can dock at a French port

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812 because Alexander I renounced British blockade. He burned Moscow, but Russian wintertime caused his troops to suffer & die

Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain signed Treaty of Chaumont (1814), causing Napoleon to exile in Elba

In Feb 1815, Napoleon escaped exile, reorganized his army, but was defeated at Waterloo & sent to exile in remote island of St. Helena where he died (Jun 1815)

Compare & Contrast the 4 Constitutions of French Revolution

National Assembly

Power rested in the nation-state, not the king or the people. Adopted civil liberties for men. Still kept a monarchy but later abolished it. 


Power rested in the people. This was a republic. Made radical changes (10-day week, turned against religion). Used guillotine. Gave more civil liberties to the people


This was a military government. Power was mostly in the military. This had less civil liberties than the Convention. 

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

This was a dictatorship. Power was in Napoleon and his army. Gave civil liberties to men though Napoleonic Codes. Reformed education & infrastructure. 

Aftermath of French Revolution & Congress of Vienna

  • Congress of Vienna was a series of meetings of the Quadruple alliance against Napoleon (Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia)

    • First met in 1814

    • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria led the meeting

    • Sought to restore European balance of power after Napoleon

  • Congress of Vienna signed first Treaty of Paris

    • France was restored to its 1792 borders, which were much larger than its pre-revolution borders​

    • Sought to maintain balance of power by giving each nation a specific amount of territory

  • After Napoleon escaped from Elba, second Treaty of Paris was signed

    • France had to pay 700 million francs for the war

  • Metternich believed in the idea of conservatism

    • Didn't want radical changes as it leads to useless revolutions

    • Hated the idea of nationalism because Austria was multiethnic

  • Austria, Prussia, Russia formed Holy Alliance (1815) to repress revolutionary movements

    • Sought to bring constitutional monarchies in Italy, Spain, etc.​

    • Metternich hated this & restored Spanish autocracy in 1823

    • Also organized Germany into loose confederation of 38 states with ambassadors to a Confederation Diet

      • Issued Karlsbad Decrees​ (1819), suppressing liberal organizations & press in Germany

    • Also suppressed reform in Russia as a group of liberals failed to march for reform in 1825


Haitian Revolution

French colony of Saint-Domingue (modern-day Haiti) was home to whites, free blacks, and enslaved blacks. Enlightenment ideals spread from America & France, leading to chaos as whites didn't want blacks to gain freedom

National Assembly refused to give freedom to free blacks as they thought it would lead to slave independence

Slaves organized revolts, starting in Aug 1791. Met in the night to plan revolts, attracted thousands of slaves 

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

National Assembly (France) promised emancipation for everyone who fought for France against Spain & Britain. Spain & Britain sought control of Saint-Domingue

Spanish colony of Santo Domingo (modern-day Dominican Republic) supported slaves, brought slaves into Spanish army. Britain also arrived & blockaded the colony

National Assembly issued decree in 1792 extending freedom to free blacks. Hoped it would allow free blacks to help suppress slave revolts

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

In Oct 1793, slavery was abolished throughout Saint-Domingue. In 1794, National Convention (France) made it official & abolished slavery throughout French territory

Toussaint L'Ouverture, a freed Haitian slave who joined Spanish army, switched sides & supported French against Spanish & British. Became commander of the Western part of the colony

Andre Rigaud, a free black, took control of Southern part of the colony, Didn't want slaves to get freedom (he was a free black), leading to tension with L'Ouverture

WHAP Website Logo 2.png

Jean-Jacques Dessalines led victory against French, declared independence on 1/1/1804. Named the colony "Haiti"

Napoleon sent an army to capture L'Ouverture in 1802. They captured him & sent him to France, where he died in 1803

In 1799, L'Ouverture's lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, helped take over the Southern part of the colony, uniting the entire colony


Absolutism & Constitutionalism:

Absolutism was the idea that one monarch has complete power over his kingdom and does not give any power to others. Absolutism was common, especially in France, where Louis XIV consolidated all authority for himself and even built the Palace of Versailles to showcase his glory. Similarly, the Habsburgs and Prussia both had absolutism where the monarch consolidated all power for himself. In contrast, Britain and the Netherlands had constitutional monarchies, where the parliament would make laws, but a monarch still presided over the parliament. This often led to conflicts between Parliament & the monarch as both want power over the other as seen in the English Civil War (1642-1649). 

Scientific Revolution:

The scientific revolution was a big change in the way people viewed the natural world. Previously, everyone agreed with the teachings of Aristotle & the ancient Greeks and Romans as they aligned properly with the values of the Catholic church. However, as scientists used more advanced instruments and better methods of experimentation, scientists made discoveries in astronomy that contradicted the teachings of the church. For example, Copernicus's heliocentric model (the idea that the Sun is the center of the universe) challenged the church's belief that the earth is the center of the universe because Copernicus's model would mean that the Earth isn't unique compared to other planets, which contradicts Catholic doctrine. These new discoveries allowed many people to undermine the church and believe in a new doctrine called deism, the idea that god created the world but doesn't intervene in its day-to-day affairs as the natural forces of the universe do that instead. 


Resulting from the scientific revolution, people sought to use rational reasoning to promote human progress. Many enlightenment thinkers came up with ideologies of proper governance, and the most influential was John Locke. Locke taught that all men have rights of life, liberty, and pursuit of property, which the government must guarantee, and if the government doesn't give these rights, the people have the right to overthrow it. This led to enlightened absolutism, where monarchs still consolidated all power but gave basic liberties to their subjects. In Prussia, Russia, and Habsburg Austria, the monarchs used enlightened absolutism where they kept absolute authority but still gave civil liberties and rights to their subjects. Eventually, this enlightenment thought spread to the Americas and initiated the political revolutions in America, France, Haiti, and Latin America.