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Time Period 1: 1450 - 1648

Outline
General Timeline
Timeline
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General Maps
Maps

Map #1: Europe

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Map #2: European Explorers & Americas

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Course Content
Course

Renaissance:

Renissance

Italian Renaissance

Italian City-States

  • Merchants became really wealthy & led comfortable lives

    • Florence was the wealthiest city-state

    • Most merchants were wealthy bankers

  • Most Northern Italian states were known as communes

    • Ruled by a few wealthy merchants (oligarchy)

    • Only wealthy merchants or people who lived their for a long time could afford to stay

    • Merchants regulated everything, nobles didn't have much power

    • These wealthy merchant rulers built huge courts to display their wealth

      • Important ceremonies would happen there

  • Renaissance created a strong attachment to one city, leading to the growth of major city-states

    • Larger Italian city-states were dominating & absorbing the smaller ones

    • Venice, Milan, Papal States (Rome), Naples, & Florence were  most powerful states

      • Venice was ruled by merchant oligarchy

      • Milan was ruled by Sforza family

      • Spanish Kingdom of Aragon ruled Naples

      • Medici family ruled Florence

  • Dominican Friar Girolamo Savanarola expelled Medicis from Florence

    • Believed Medicis were corrupt as they were secular & corrupt

    • Savanarola organized government according to Christian standards

    • Pope excommunicated him & Medicis retook power as Florentines became tired of his rule

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Origins of Renaissance

  • Renaissance refers to a "rebirth" of human achievements & ancient literature

    • Giorgio Vasari first coined the word "Renaissance"​

  • Humanism refers to the study of human achievements

    • Francesco Petrarch uncovered ancient Roman texts, believed those to be valuable

      • Studied Cicero, enjoyed his elegant writing & use of Latin language​

    • Petrarch's revival of ancient Latin classics was known as humanism

  • Believed humans lay in between God & material world

    • Marsilio Ficino believed Plato was precursor of Christ

    • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola believed humans that to excellent things have virtú (virtue)

      • Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man, detailing how being a man is a really good thing​

    • Believed in studying things in their ideal form

  • Believed education was for the public good as opposed to for private or religious purposes

    • Believed all men should be educated in Latin classics & humanist thought​

    • Didn't believe women should be educated as much

    • Baldassare Castiglione wrote The Courtier (1528), believed men should be educated to gain a higher place in society

  • Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince (1532)

    • Believed rulers should be wise & must preserve security​

    • Believed rulers can do brutal things to maintain power but shouldn't do anything for personal pleasure

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Printing Press & How it Helped Renaissance

  • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440s

    • Used stamps to print letters just like stamps would print symbols on jewelry

  • More books were disseminated via printing press

    • Renaissance thinkers spread their ideas via books​

    • More literacy (because more schools opened) led to a larger audience for books

    • Books were written for secular purposes as well

  • Print houses became common

    • Many people opened these to disseminate the latest Renaissance books

    • People gathered in print houses to discuss the books

  • Literate people would read to illiterate people

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Spread of Renaissance Ideals & Renaissance Art

  • Renaissance ideals were shown via art

  • Urban groups & wealthy people commissioned famous artists to make works of art

    • Filippo Brunelleschi designed the Florence dome​

    • Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel of Vatican City, commissioned by Pope Julius II

  • Art showed human ideals as opposed to spiritual ideals

    • Giotto started by sculpting/painting real human figures instead of exaggerated ​​body parts

    • Filippo Brunelleschi also developed linear perspective

      • This can create 3-D depictions on a 2-D surface​

      • Piera della Francesca used linear perspective in his works

    • Donatello sculpted accurate human figures to represent balance instead of exaggeration

  • Artists were patronized for their artistic styles

  • Most artists were trained in workshops

    • Women rarely received full training like men​

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Major Renaissance People & Works

Giorgio Vasari

First person to coin the term "Renaissance." Means "rebirth."

Francesco Petrarch

Created humanist thought, Revived ancient Roman classics, promoted the study of human achievements (humanism). 

Marsilio Ficino

Studied Plato, believed Platonic teachings to be the precursor to Christianity. 

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Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man, believed mankind is good & men (especially virtuous men) are good people. 

Baldassare Castiglione

Wrote The Courtier, believed men should be educated in order to gain a high status in society. Didn't women should be as educated. 

Niccolo Machiavelli

Wrote The Prince, believed rulers should be wise & can use brutal tactics to maintain rule but not for personal pleasure. 

Thomas More

English Northern Renaissance thinker. Wrote Utopia, believed there lay a utopian land where poverty doesn't exist & all men get humanist education. 

Desiderius Erasmus

Northern Renaissance thinker from Rotterdam. Believed the church should have a Renaissance, promoted reading the Bible & ancient Christian texts. 

Filippo Brunelleschi

Commissioned by wealthy Florentine merchants to make the Florence dome. Known for developing idea of linear perspective. 

Giotto & Donatello

Made sculptures that depict actual human figures as opposed to exaggerated human figures. 

Piero della Francesca

Famous for using linear perspective in his works. 

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Albrecht Dürer

German Northern Renaissance thinker. Made woodcuts (mechanical devices) to aid other artists in using linear perspective. 

Northern Renaissance

  • Northern Renaissance was the spread of Renaissance ideals throughout Europe (north of Italy)

  • Some Northern Renaissance thinkers combined Christianity with Humanism

    • Believed classical values of patience & calmness combine with Christian values of love & faith

  • Thomas More (England) published Utopia (1516)​

    • Believed there lay a utopian land where everyone receives humanist education, & poverty is solved​

  • Desiderius Erasmus (Rotterdam) wrote scholarly books to harmonize humanism with Christianity

    • Believed in inner morality rather than Scholastic theology

    • Believed the church should have a renaissance

    • Promoted reading the Bible & Christian texts

    • Translated New Testament into Latin

  • Northern Renaissance art used oil paintings & wood panels

    • Albrecht Dürer created woodcuts & other mechanical devices to help artists with linear perspective

    • Mannerism developed, where people used oil paintings to exaggerate certain body parts or expressions

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Society During Renaissance Time

  • Slavery was somewhat common

    • Africans were regarded as inferior & many Europeans kept Africans as slaves

    • Started in Ancient Rome, but local authorities banned slavery later on

    • Slavery continued later, having slaves signified wealth

  • Most hierarchies were based on wealth

    • Wealthy merchants lived in large houses & sometimes gained political power

    • Still, nobles had higher social status than commoners

    • People did things for honor, regardless of the wealth it provided​

  • Women were regarded as inferior to men

    • Many philosophers wondered why women were inferior​

    • ​Unmarried men were inferior to married men

    • Women needed to be married as they couldn't support a family with their small wage

    • This gender arrangement was the most natural hierarchical arrangement in society

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New Monarchies & 16th Century Politics:

Monarch

Spain

Before 1469, Spain was divided into multiple kingdoms

In 1469, King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile

Partially unified Spain

In 1478, Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a government program intended to attack all non-Catholics

Through Spanish Inquisition, they conquered Muslim Kingdom of Granada in 1492

Thus, Spain was completely unified under Catholic rule. End of Spanish Inquisition

  • Many Jews came to Spain as France & England expelled all their Jews

    • Jews were really good in business

    • High Jewish population led to many Anti-Semitic programs to expel the Jews

    • Most Jews converted, but Spanish Catholics believed they weren't pure Catholics (they still had "Jewish blood")

      • Thus, 75% of Jews in Spain fled​

  • Isabella & Ferdinand's daughter married King of Netherlands & Holy Roman Empire, so their son, Charles V or Habsburgs, had a huge inherited realm (Spain, Netherlands, Germany, etc.)

France

After 100 Years' War with English, King Charles VII started consolidating French rule. He expelled the English

Charles VII's son, Louis XI, improved French army & conquered Burgundy

Louis XI's son, Louis XII, married Anne of Brittany, bringing Duchy of Brittany into French realm

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Louis XII's son, Francis I, signed Concordat of Bologna (1516) with Pope Leo X, allowing Francis I to elect French bishops.

England

During reign of Henry IV, aristocrats in government fought for power. Henry VI took power later, which weakened power of monarchy

Edward IV of York helped reconstruct the English monarchy. He used methods suggested by Machiavelli in The Prince (cruelty, wisdom, etc.). 

Henry VII distrusted nobles & kept small landowners in government positions

Protestant Reformation:

Protestant

Martin Luther & Creation of Protestantism

  • Martin Luther, a theology professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany, believed the Catholic church was corrupt
What was Wrong with the Church?
  • Luther believed people go to heaven by way of god rather than through the Catholic church

  • Luther hated the sale of indulgences (Catholic church sold forgivenesses of sins to people)

  • Luther hated that the Bible was only available in Latin as opposed to regional and common languages

  • Hated pluralism (a practice where some clergymen held multiple leadership positions)

Hover for the Answer

  • In 1517, Luther wrote 95 Theses, a pamphlet with 95 arguments against the church & nailed it to the door of Wittenberg Church

  • Pope Leo X excommunicated him in 1520

  • At Diet of Worms (1521), Luther refused to recant his ideas

    • Luther's refusal to recant his ideas led more people to hear about his ideas

  • Protestant Church was created at Diet of Speyer (1529)

    • Believed god initiated salvation​

    • Religious authority rest in the Bible alone

    • Only approved religious practices that can be supported by the Bible or other scriptures

      • The Sacraments were rejected as the scriptures didn't write about them

  • Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss man, helped Luther spread his ideas

    • Believed in only using the New Testament, as it contained the true words of god​

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Spread of Protestant Reformation

Appeal of Protestantism

  • Protestant ideals spread quickly via the printing press

    • Humanists liked Protestantism because of its idea of leading simple lives based on faith

  • Luther & Zwingli appointed pastors in local cities to help spread Protestantism

  • A group known as "Radicals" wanted a religious institution separate from state & mounted revolts

    • Known as anabaptists as they baptized adults

    • Didn't believe in a state church, wanted church to be separate from state

    • Peasants got angry due to crop failures & confiscation of property by government, so they led a massive rebellion

      • They wanted church-state separation

      • Government crushed this, 75,000 died

  • Protestants believed all women should be married

    • Hated prostitution, forced brothels to close

    • Believed clergymen should marry, and their wives would have respectable positions as pastors' wives

    • Believed marriage represents spiritual equality of men & women

    • Forced monasteries/covenants to close

    • Women could not be members of clergy

  • Charles V, ruler of Habsburg domain, signed Peace of Augsburg (1555)

    • Charles V acquired this land through family marriages, ruled large area from Austria to Spain

    • Called Diet of Augsburg (1550) to promote Catholicism & stop religious division

    • Protestants mounted coalition against him, so he signed Peace of Augsburg (1555)

      • Allowed each st​ate to choose its own religion (Catholicism or Lutheranism)

  • Protestantism appealed in Scandinavia

    • King Christian III of Denmark-Norway (union of the two states) adopted Lutheranism

      • Spread easily in Denmark & slowly in Norway & Iceland​

    • King Gustav I of Sweden adopted Lutheranism

      • Later altered Lutheran doctrine slightly to create their own church

  • Czechs in Bohemia first partially embraced Lutheranism but then reconverted to Catholicism

  • Poland-Lithuania (joint government) first initially had some converts to Lutheranism & Calvinism, but later reverted to Catholicism after counter reformation

  • Hungarians hated Germans so they didn't embrace Protestantism

    • After Ottoman invasion of Hungary, part of Hungary became Lutheran

    •  In late 1600s when Ottomans retreated & Habsburgs retook power, Catholicism became dominant again

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Creation of Anglican Church

  • King Henry VIII created Church of England

    • Was married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of rulers of Spain

    • Catherine was the widow of Henry VIII's brother, but their marriage was against Christian law

    • Catherine's nephew, Charles V (Habsburg ruler), besieged Rome & kept Pope Clement VII as a prisoner, but Charles V disapproved the divorce

    • Thus, Henry VIII proclaimed autonomy from papal authority & created Anglican Church

      • Had some Catholic elements like ornate ceremonies, hierarchical clergy, but was mostly Protestant​

      • Confiscated property of monasteries & distributed them to upper class

    • Irish were Catholic & England had some rule over Ireland

      • Irish Catholics revolted, but English confiscated their land & forced them to convert

    • Thomas Cranmer (archbishop of Canterbury) wrote Book of Common Prayer (1549), which became official book of Anglican Church

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Creation of Puritan Church & Post-Anglican England

After King Henry VIII's death, Mary of Tudor (Henry VIII's daughter with Catherine of Aragon) took power in England

Mary of Tudor married a Catholic, so Anglicans went to exile in mainland Europe

Other Anglicans in England assassinated Mary of Tudor

Elizabeth altered the Anglican doctrine to something between Puritan & Catholic ideologies, but it was more Protestant than before

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Anglicans in exile came back to England, created Puritan church (wanted to purify Anglicanism of all its Catholic elements)

Elizabeth (King Henry VIII's daughter with his other wife) took over & became monarch

Spanish Armada (1588)

King Philip II of Spain married Mary of Tudor, hoping to make England Catholic

This plan ended when Mary of Tudor was assassinated by Anglicans

Another Mary, Queen of Scotland, (a Catholic) had another opportunity to kill Elizabeth. She was Elizabeth's cousin

English troops easily defeated Spanish armada, forcing them to retaliate

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Philip II then sent navy troops (Spanish Armada) to England to restore Catholicism there (1588)

Elizabeth imprisoned Mary of Scotland, and English later executed Mary of Scotland

Creation of Calvinism

  • John Calvin converted to Protestantism, created his own denomination of Protestantism in Geneva

    • Believed God had chosen a group of people for salvation (an idea known as predestination)

      • That group was known as "the elect"​

    • Believed that people should work hard as it portrays that they were among "the elect"

    • Believed all sovereignty is in god, no importance for human beings

    • Executed all heretics to Calvinism

  • Scotland later created Presbyterian Church, modeled on Calvinism

    • Many Scottish nobles supported Protestantism while the king & queen were Catholic

    • Scottish man John Knox convinced Scottish Parliament to abandon papal authority

      • Wanted religious leadership of a council of ministers (known as Presbyters)

    • Created Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which was Calvinist & had a simple doctrine

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Religious Wars

Religious War in France

King Francis I of France needed to raise taxes to pay for Habsburg-Valois wars. Signed Concordat of Bologna (1516) with Pope Leo X to gain ability to appoint French clergymen himself

Calvinism became popular among French nobility. Gained popularity in countryside. French Protestants were known as Huguenots

King Henry II died in 1559, so his 3 sons took over & had weak leadership. French nobles adopted Calvinism to weaken French rule. King Henry III became main leader among the 3 sons

Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) took over after Henry III died. Issued Edict of Nantes (1598), allowing Huguenots to practice their religion in 150 cities. 

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King Henry III's sister, Margaret (Catholic), would marry Protestant Henry of Navarre. Intended to reconcile Protestants & Catholics, but instead, Huguenot attendees were massacred (St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre). 

Many fights occurred between Huguenots & Catholics in French countryside. Huguenots destroyed Catholic images as they didn't believe in sacred images 

War in Low Countries & Creation of Netherlands

Charles V (ruler of Habsburgs) abdicated throne in 1556, giving Spain & Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium) to Philip II

Lutherans in Low Countries respected Philip II, but Calvinists hated it as they were taught to oppose ungodly governments

10 southern provinces (Belgium) joined Spain, became Catholic. 7 northern provinces (Netherlands) declared independence, became United Provinces (Calvinist). England helped them gain independence from Spanish

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King Philip II sent troops to maintain order in Low Countries

King Philip II raised taxes for Calvinists because they hated his government

Calvinists revolted & destroyed Catholic images (iconoclasm)

Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

  • War between Catholics & Protestants of Holy Roman Empire

  • Treaty of Augsburg (1555) was signed between Lutherans & Catholics

    • Allowed each ​German state to choose their own state religion

  • Treaty of Augsburg was deteriorating as people kept converting to other branches of Christianity

  • Lutherans formed Protestant Union (1608), Catholics formed Catholic League (1609)

  • Started out as Catholic Bohemians challenged Protestant rule of Holy Roman Empire

  • War is divided into 4 phases

  • War ended with Peace of Westphalia (1648)

    • Recognized independence of over 300 German states

    • Allowed each state to worship Lutheranism, Calvinism, Catholicism

    • Mostly Northern German states were Protestant & Southern states were Catholic

Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)

Civil War in Bohemia among Protestants & Catholics. Catholics defeated Protestants at Battle of White Mountain (1620)

Danish Phase (1625-1629)

King Christian IV of Denmark led Protestants against Catholics (led by Albrecht Wallenstein). English King Charles I (Protestant) allied against France & Spain but failed. Habsburgs issued edict of Restitution, allowed Catholics to regain land they lost. 

Swedish Phase (1630-1635)

Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus supported Protestants. French minister Cardinal Richelieu supported Swedish. Adolphus died in war. 

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French Phase (1635-1648)

French feared Catholic Habsburgs would gain power, so French declared war on Catholic Spain (Spain supported Habsburgs). Peace was achieved in 1648, but Spain was harmed miserably. 

Developments Within Catholicism

Council of Trent (1545-1563) & Catholic Counter Reformation

  • Pope Paul III called Council of Trent (1545-1563) to reform Catholic doctrine

    • Sought to reconcile all of Christianity​

    • Banned sale of indulgences

    • Required all bishops to reside in their dioceses

      • Bishops thus can only hold one office, ending practice of pluralism

    • Required stricter education & stricter selection process for clergymen

    • Made scriptures the true source of religious authority

    • Still kept Latin as official language of church

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Other Developments Within Catholicism

  • Ignatius Loyola founded Society of Jesus (1534)

    • Followers were known as Jesuits

    • Had rigorous training standards

    • Believed in asceticism, seclusion, & prayer

    • Appealed to many people, got many Protestants to convert back to Catholicism

  • Witch-hunting became common

    • People tried & executed those who they believed worshipped the Devil​

    • Believed they wanted to overthrow Christianity

    • People would accuse others whom they believed were witches, mostly women

    • 45,000 supposed witches were executed

    • Witch-hunting was done in mass (witch panics) after a natural disaster

      • People would blame multiple people for horrible things, often because one witch would give the names of other witches

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European Age of Exploration:

Exploration

Origins of Exploration

Pre-Exploration Situation

  • Trade was popular in Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan trade routes

    • Mongols connected China to the West

    • India & Southeast Asia became wealthy from Indian Ocean

    • West Africa became wealthy from gold trade

  • Before European exploration, Venice & Genoa dominated European trade

    • Venice would acquire luxury goods from the East & trade with the rest of Europe for huge profits

    • Genoa would look west & help with finance

  • Venice & Genoa were crucial for European exploration

    • Venice dominated slavery in Black Sea region​

    • Genoa dominated slavery in North Africa, Iberia, and Canary Islands

    • Both were crucial in bringing slavery to the New World

    • Genoa's finance techniques were used to finance exploration in the New World

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Causes of Exploration

  • State-sponsored exploration was very common

    • States wanted glory for their nation, so they sponsored voyages of exploration​

  • States wanted to spread Christianity

    • After Spanish reconquista, where they Spanish conquered all non-Catholic kingdoms in Iberia, they wanted to spread Catholicism throughout the world

    • Other Protestant nations wanted to spread their denomination of Christianity

  • Technological innovations made travel easy

    • New ships (caravel, carrack, fluyt) made travel easier as they were sturdier & could withstand rough winds

    • Lateen sail (triangle-shaped) could catch winds on both sides

    • Sternpost rudder helps with maneuverability

    • Astrolabe determines latitude

    • Magnetic compass determines direction

    • Barometer determines air pressure & can detect a storm

    • Other innovations in deciphering wind currents helped sailors take advantage of wind currents

  • Rivalries among European nations sparked exploration

    • European nations wanted to conquer more land than others

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Exploration

First Explorers

  • Portugal started European exploration

    • It's unique location (facing westward into Atlantic & blocked eastward by Spain) made it necessary for Portuguese to expand westward

    • Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator) sponsored voyages down the African west coast

    • Portuguese built trading posts on African west coast & forged alliances with African kingdoms

    • Conquered many African islands in the Atlantic

    • Bartholomew Diaz sailed around Southern Tip of Africa in 1488 but returned immediately to Portugal

    • In 1497, Vasco da Gama sailed around the Southern Tip of Africa to India & came back to Portugal with lots of spices

  • Christopher Columbus sailed westward to Americas in 1492

    • Sponsored by Spanish, sought a westward route to Asia

    • Landed in Bahamas, thought it was Japan

    • Confiscated gold from local Taíno people & enslaved them

    • Sent letters to Spain, Rapidly spread news about the land

    • Still believed the land he found to be Japan or China

  • In 1497, Amerigo Vespucci sailed to Brazil & realized that the land is a New World & isn't Asia

    • Thus, the New World was named America after him

  • Spain wanted a sea route to Maluku spice islands of Southeast Asia, so they employed Ferdinand Magellan

    • In 1519, Magellan sailed through a strait in the tip of South America (now named after him) & died after a physical argument in the Philippines​

    • His crew returned to Spain in 1522

  • Spain continued its expansion in the Americas as it was jealous of Portuguese success in India

  • Jacques Cartier sailed for France & landed in Montreal

    • Traded beaver fur with natives & acquired lots of fish

      • Fish was popular as other meat was prohibited by Church on special days

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List of Explorers

Name

Sponsor

Year of Journey

Description

Bartholomew Dias

Portugal

1488

First to round the Cape of Good Hope (Southern tip of Africa). Returned home immediately afterward. 

Christopher Columbus

Spain

1492

First to land in Americas. Landed in Caribbean islands. Thought they were some islands near Japan. 

Vasco da Gama

Portugal

1497

First to sail to India. Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to India. Returned to Portugal with lots of spices. 

John Cabot

England

1497

Sailed for England, arrived in present-day New Foundland. 

Amerigo Vespucci