AP Art History

Unit 3: c. 200 - 1750 CE

Early Europe and Colonial Americas

Images 48-97

Main Ideas:

  • As different cultural and intellectual movements sprung throughout Europe, artists sought to depict God in their artworks in different ways

  • As different entities (such as the Catholic Church, French monarchy, Spanish monarchy in America, etc.) sought to expand their power, they commissioned artworks that glorified their power

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Late Antique Europe: Often adapts pagan elements to Christianity (such as Roman basilica & columns, shepherds, etc.) to encourage Romans to convert to Christianity

  • Early Byzantine Europe: Uses art to emphasize the Orthodox Christian idea of finding God through internal spirituality and not through doctrine
  • Early Medieval Europe: Its artworks contain different motifs all strung together, representative of the different cultures in Western Europe after the fall of Rome (476 CE)
  • Umayyad: Its artwork contains grand mesmerizing imagery to encourage Spaniards to convert to Islam while proclaiming dominance over the Abbasids

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Romanesque: Has mostly Roman-style structures (such as simple rounded arches) and other simple structures & illustrations without much elegance or intricacy

  • Gothic: Elaborates on Romanesque art with more intricate designs (such as pointed arches & stained-glass windows). Has images of religious figures framed within shiny medallions (in manuscripts & in stained-glass windows)
  • Proto-Renaissance: An early part of the Renaissance that depicts religious figures in a somewhat realistic & naturalistic way
  • Late Medieval Spain: Artworks from this period represent cross-cultural exchanges between Christians, Jews, and Muslims in Medieval Spain
  • Ottoman: Sought to showcase the supremacy of the Ottoman Empire & of its features (such as Orthodox Islam) to expand its power in nearby regions

Quattrocento (1400s):

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Northern Quattrocento: Had more of a focus on religious scenes with naturalism and lots of intricate symbolic details
  • Southern Quattrocento: Focused more on classical (pagan) mythology, realism, and having balance & symmetry

Cinquecento (1500s):

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Northern Cinquecento: Depicted religious scenes and scenes from daily life in a naturalistic and aesthetic way to allow people to learn valuable lessons from them
  • Southern Cinquecento: Continued the revival of classical & pagan ideals, but focused more on creating a more aesthetic image than simply on realism & perspective

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • Southern Baroque: Depicted religious scenes in a grand majestic way to showcase how anyone can go to heaven in order to encourage Protestants to convert back to Catholicism
  • Northern Baroque: Focused more on achieving spiritual enlightenment through everyday objects and scenes from daily life by depicting lots of drama, dynamism, and emotional exuberance between people
  • French Classicism: Used a mix of classical ideals (from Ancient Greece & Rome) and baroque ideals (ornate swirly decorations) to allude to France's renewed intellectual and physical power

Main Ideas of the Topic

  • The Spanish harmonized Indigenous American culture with that of their own while depicting themselves as more powerful to encourage the Indigenous Americans to adopt Christianity and acknowledge Spanish rule in the Americas