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Unit 7: 1890-1945

General Timelines

Timeline #1: Spanish-American War (1898)

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Timeline #2: Other Territorial Acquisitions

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Timeline #3: The Progressive Movement

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Timeline #4: World War 1

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Timeline #5: The New Era

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Timeline #6: The Great Depression

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Timeline #7: The 1st New Deal (1933-1934)

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Timeline #8: The 2nd New Deal (1935-1938)

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Timeline #9: Interwar Period Foreign Policy

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Timeline #10: World War 2

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General Maps

Map # 1: Spanish-American War in Cuba

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Map # 2: Other Territorial Acquisitions

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Map # 3: US in Progressive Era

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Map # 4: US Involvement in Latin America

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Map # 5: US in World War 1

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Map # 6: Europe in World War 1

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Map # 7: US in the New Era (1920s)

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Map # 8: US in the Great Depression

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Map # 9: US in the New Deal

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Map # 10: Europe in the Interwar Period

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Map # 11: The Pacific in the Interwar Period

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Map # 12: Europe in World War 2

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Map # 13: The Pacific in World War 2

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Course Content

Spanish-American War:


Causes of the War

Situation in Cuba

  • Cuba & Puerto Rico were Spain's last colonies

    • In early 1800s, all of Spain's other colonies in America got independence

  • Cubans wanted independence from Spain

    • In 1895, Cuban revolutionary Jose Martí led a revolt against the Spanish​

    • US sympathized with Cubans, but the Spanish hated the independence movement

  • Spanish General Valeriano Weyler instituted harsher policies in Cuba to suppress the revolutionaries

    • Put some Cubans in concentration camps where thousands died​

    • US media covered this situation, causing Americans to sympathize with the Cubans​

  • To help the Cubans, US called Spain to recall Weyler's brutal actions

    • Spain refused

  • In February 1898, American ship USS Maine sunk in Havana harbor due to an engine explosion

    • American media falsely blamed it on the Spanish, causing anti-Spanish sentiment in US​

  • Spain again refused to end hostilities in Cuba, so US declared war on Spain


Battles of the War

Overview of War

  • A very short war (April - August 1898)

    • Only ~400 US troops died, but ~5000 died of disease​

  • US had supply problems for its army

    • Had to rely on National Guard & volunteer regiments instead of actual military

      • Had little experience w/ large-scale war

    • Had shortage of rifles & ammunition

  • Many Blacks also served in the US army for the war

    • Mostly formed volunteer regiments or served in the 4 Black US regiments

    • War gave them a sense of freedom as many Cuban soldiers were also Black

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Battles in Cuba

Spanish Gen. Pascual Cervera slipped past the US navy & stationed himself at the port city of Santiago de Cuba (May 1898)

US needed to defeat Spanish forces at El Caney & San Juan Hill to retake Santiago de Cuba

US Gen. William Shafter was the main commander of troops to Cuba. His troops were very disorganized

After US forces had control of Spanish forts near Santiago de Cuba, Spanish troops tried leaving Santiago harbor but were attacked by US troops. US troops held Spanish Gen. Pascual captive (Jul 3, 1898)

Asst Sec of Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, led a regiment called "Rough Riders" as they were disorganized. He defeated the Spanish at El Caney & San Juan Hill (Jul 1, 1898)

Gen. Shafter employed Gen. Joseph Wheeler to attack the Spanish fort at Las Guasimas, but he lost (Jun 1898)

  • Yellow fever was spreading rapidly among US troops, so US withdrew its troops from Cuba

  • US only left one volunteer Black regiment in charge of Cuba

    • They were from the southern states, so they were more immune to yellow fever than other troops

Battles in Puerto Rico

US Navy Adm. William T Sampson attacked Puerto Rican capital, San Juan, & imposed naval blockade of it (May 12, 1898)

US Gen. Nelson A Miles arrived w/ 1300 soldiers to lead land campaigns. Battles of Yauco, Fajardo, and Guayama were all inconclusive as both parties retreated (Jul - Aug 1898)

US troops lost Battle of Coamo (Aug 9) & Battle of Asomante (Aug 12)

  • Because US forces were losing in Puerto Rico, they withdrew in Aug 1898

  • In Treaty of Paris (Dec 1898), Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the US

Battles in Philippines

US Navy Cmd. George Dewey led huge US victory at Battle of Manila Bay (May 1, 1898)

Emilio Aguinaldo gained support of other Filipinos in support of the US against Spanish rule. He declared independence of Philippines on Jul 12

On Aug 5, Spanish forces came to Manila to establish control. US forces defeated them at Battle of Manila (Aug 13, 1898), giving the Philippines to US

Battles in Guam

US fleet led by Capt. Henry Glass was on his way to Philippines & instead invaded Guam's Apra Harbor (Jun 20, 1898)

Local officials didn't know Spain & US were at war, so they didn't care to defend

Glass informed them that they were at war & forced them to surrender (Jun 21, 1898)

End of the War

Treaty of Paris (Dec 1898)

Cuba gets independence from Spain

US gets Puerto Rico and Guam

US pays $20 million to Spain for Philippines

Situation in Puerto Rico

  • Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony & long sought independence from Spain

    • In 1898, Luis Miñoz Rivera got some autonomy for Puerto Rico

  • However, in Dec 1898, Puerto Rico was in US's hands

    • Was under US military rule until 1900​

  • In 1900, US passed Foraker Act

    • Created a government in Puerto Rico: US-appointed governor, 2 legislative assemblies, judicial system

  • In 1917, US passed Jones-Shafroth Act

    • Made all Puerto Ricans US citizens

  • Puerto Rico economically benefited from the US

    • It had a thriving sugar industry & could trade with US without tariffs


Philippine-American War (1899-1902)

  • After Treaty of Paris (Dec 1898), Filipinos felt betrayed as they wanted independence from US & Spain

  • Emilio Aguinaldo led the Filipinos to revolt against the US

  • In 1900, US Gen. Arthur MacArthur became the governor of US-occupied Philippines

  • Americans had brutal war tactics

    • Destroyed homes & plantations, forced people into concentration camps, etc.

    • In the end, over 200k Filipino civilians died while only about 6k US troops died

  • William Howard Taft (future US president) was Governor-General of Philippines (1901-1903)

    • Developed infrastructure in Philippines: Built roads, schools, bridges, sewers, etc.

    • Gave Filipinos some autonomy

  • Philippines was very dependent on US economy

  • US governors were actually preparing Philippines for independence

  • Philippines got independence from US in 1946


Development in Cuba