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Time Period 3: 1815 - 1914

General Outline
General Timeline
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General Maps

Map # 1: Europe

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Map # 2: Africa

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Course Content

Industrial Revolution:


Start of Industrial Revolution

Britain Takes the Lead

Why did the British lead the Industrial Revolution?
  • Lots of water access, good for water wheels & transporting resources

  • Had lots of natural resources, like coal

  • Had a central bank that could finance development of industrial capital

  • People had higher wages that they used to purchase industrial goods

  • British farming was really efficient, so more people could work in the cities instead of on the farms

  • Britain became wealthy by controlling trade among its colonies

  • Due to British lead, British government banned the export of industrial technology to maintain British economic dominance

Hover for the answer

First Industrial Revolution (1760-1830)

Flying Shuttle

Invented by John Kay (1733), used to speed up cotton weaving

Spinning Jenny

Invented by James Hargreaves (1764), used to spin cotton

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Water Frame

Invented by Richard Arkwright in 1768, uses water power to spin cotton

Spinning Mule

Invented by Samuel Crompton in 1779, allowed for large-scale spinning of thread

Interchangeable Parts

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1798, a concept that multiple factory workers can make individual parts of an item & join them together

Steam Engine

Invented by Thomas Newcomer, James Watt improved it in 1769. Uses burned coal to generate steam to turn a wheel and generate power


Invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, uses steam power to power a ship

Steam-powered Locomotive

Invented by George Stephenson in 1814, uses steam to power a train

Power Loom

Invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785, a machine that uses water power to automatically weave thread

Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)

Bessemer Converter (Makes Steel)



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Internal Combustion Engine








Spread of Industrial Revolution

Spread of Industrial Revolution throughout Europe & US

  • Britain banned the export of industrial machines so it could maintain its economic lead, but still, some people exported them

    • William Cockerill, and Englishman, built industrial factory in Belgium in 1799

    • Fritz Harkort, a Prussian army officer who served in England, spread industry to Germany

      • Built heavy industry but lost lots of money

  • The rest of Western Europe (& US) adopted industrialization, but Britain was still ahead of them

    • US later caught up with Britain

  • Western European nations were easily able to industrialize

    • Strong governments prevented foreign domination, so their governments could easily control industry

    • Already had skilled artisans through putting-out system

    • Didn't need to test out new machinery as Britain already did so

  • Western governments supported industrialization

    • Raised tariffs on imports to protect domestic industry​

    • Often financed heavy industries or payed private businesses to build heavy industry

    • Central banks adopted limited liability, allowing them to support more industry with little risk

    • Germany supported free trade among German states to allow for cheap transport of machinery​


Spread of Industrial Revolution Throughout Rest of the World

  • Russia initially started industrialization but failed

    • Most of population was in serfdom & couldn't transition into working in factories

    • Resorted to exporting raw materials to the west

  • Europeans dominated Latin American, African, and Asian economies, prevented them from industrializing

    • Forced them to export certain raw materials to supply raw materials

    • British industrial textiles were cheap & completely destroyed Indian handmade textile industry

    • Colonies couldn't raise tariffs on imports to protect domestic industry as colonizers would prevent it

    • Latin America tried industrializing but failed as it still relied mostly on agricultural exportation

  • Japan industrialized after Meiji Restoration (1868)

    • In 1853, US Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to Edo (Tokyo) with a gunboat

    • Japan realized that they were behind in technology upon seeing the gunboat

    • In 1868, little boy named Meiji took power (Meiji Restoration), started industrializing

      • Looked to Western nations for help

  • Under Muhammad Ali, Egypt started industrializing

    • When Napoleon left Egypt after invading it, he created a power vacuum, which Muhammad Ali filled

    • Muhammad Ali drafted soldiers, used technologies to develop his agriculture, etc.

    • His son Ismail continued these reforms & built more industrial tech

    • Egypt financed these with loans from Europe, which it couldn't pay, leading to severe debts

      • Britain took advantage of these debts & conquered Egypt in 1882


Effects of Industrial Revolution

Societal Changes due to Industrial Revolution

  • Work in factories was really difficult

    • People had to show up in the morning, work for 16 hours a day, 6 days a week

    • People were beaten for poor work

    • Children were often treated cruelly

    • Families would often work together in factories

      • Men & women would have different roles, children would do minor tasks

  • Sometimes, married women would stay at home instead of working in factories

  • Many campaigned for better working conditions

    • Factory Acts (1802-1833) of Britain made better conditions in factories, especially for children

      • Another act ​put people assigned to factories to enforce these laws

  • Many hated that children were forced to do hard work

    • This led to the passage of mandatory education laws for children

  • Created a new class of factory owners, which would earn money at the expense of the working classes

  • Many workers campaigned in labor unions for better conditions, but these were mostly outlawed

  • Slave trade was outlawed in Britain in 1807 & slavery was abolished in 1833, ending major supply of raw materials

  • Cities were often dirty, prone to disease spread

    • Sewage was really dirty, not much medicinal knowledge existed

    • Edwin Chadwick falsely believed disease comes from smelling bad things

    • Bacterial revolution caused mortality to decline

      • Louis Pasteur developed idea of germs

      • Robert Koch contributed to connection between germs & diseases, found which germs cause which diseases

  • Improvements in urban planning & public transport helped cities

    • More parks were built, and electric streetcars provided efficient transport

      • People could thus live farther from cities

  • Wealth gap endured, causing many differences

    • Middle class consisted of professionals & were most necessary for their skills

      • Many middle class wives worked at home, did work similar to putting-out system at home

    • Working class's leisure activities consisted of drinking & heavy sports

    • Church became less common & more disconnected from state & politics

  • Family life became more based on love

    • Couples had more tenderness toward each other & to their children

  • Feminist movement ensued, and women received right to vote in Britain in 1919

    • Mary Wollstonecraft & others founded organizations that campaigned for equal rights


New Ideologies Formed

  • Idea of liberalism gained popularity

    • Congress of Vienna promoted conservatism, discouraging any liberal movement

    • More factory workers wanted liberal reforms, gaining momentum for the liberalist movement

  • Karl Marx promoted the idea of Marxist socialism

    • Believed bourgeoisie (upper classes) were gaining wealth at the expense of the working class (proletariat)

    • Believed competition among bourgeoisie leads to more exploitation of proletariat

    • Believed agents of power (police, etc.) serve the needs of bourgeoisie instead of proletariat

    • Believed leisure activities and religion distract the proletariat from their true subordinate position

    • Believed proletariat would eventually revolt & take over the bourgeoisie (proletarian revolution)

    • Co-wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) with Friedrich Engels, detailing his ideas

    • Laid the foundation for Russian socialism

  • People formed socialist parties & international socialist organizations

    • Social Democratic Party (SDP) in Germany had millions of followers

    • Russians exiled in Switzerland founded Russian SDP in 1883

    • Marx founded International Working Men's Association (First International)

      • This collapsed as Marx promoted violence among working class men, which most hated​

    • Second International lasted until 1914

      • Met regularly to discuss Marxist doctrine


Political Revolutions/Reforms:


Revolutions Before 1848

Liberal Reforms in Britain

British Constitutional Monarchy was barely democratic: Only 8% could vote, Parliament served needs of upper classes. Lower/Middle classes wanted more rights

Britain was importing grain, making bread price cheap. Wealthy farmers couldn't sell their grain as it was expensive, so Parliament passed Corn Laws (1815), prohibiting importing grain

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Price of bread rose, so peasants revolted

Wealthy middle class emerged after industrial revolution, encouraged upper classes to enact social reforms

Peasants revolted at St. Peter's field in Manchester (Battle of Peterloo). British army suppressed it

In 1817, Tory government (British conservative party) ended right to assembly & habeas corpus (trial by jury). Passed Six Acts (1819), suppressing rights to assembly

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Tory gov put some reforms: better urban administration, equality to Catholics, allowed some imported grain. Enacted Reform Bill of 1832, allowing middle classes to participate in government

"People's Charter" of 1838 wanted more radical reforms & universal male suffrage, but Parliament rejected it. Anti-Corn Law League (1839) led by middle-class liberals sought to repeal Corn Laws

After Irish potato famine of 1845, tory gov repealed Corn Laws in 1846 to prevent famine in Britain. Passed 10 Hours Act (1847), limiting factory workday for women & children to 10 hours

Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849)

Ireland was in serious poverty: British owned some land in Ireland & leased it to Irish tenants. British imposed high rents, evicting many Irish

Ireland lived on potato crop: One acre of potato could feed 6 people for a year. 1/2 of Irish lived solely on potato crop

Crop failures & diseases in potato crop led to potato deficiencies, leading to famine. Irish gov gave little relief. British landlords still collected rent & evicted many Irish tenants

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Irish had an anti-British feeling as they hated their British landlords. Eventually led to Irish independence (1921)

French Revolution of 1830 / July Revolution (Liberal)

Napoleon's successor, Louis XVIII (Bourbon Restoration), created Constitutional Charter (1814), a constitutional monarchy with some liberal reforms

Charles X took over in 1824, sought to repeal Constitutional Charter of 1814 & remove rights of middle class

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Charles X fled during July Revolution. Upper middle class put his cousin, Louis Philippe, in charge (1830)

Liberalists (mostly lower & middle classes) protested for 3 days (July Revolution) (1830)

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Louis Philippe adopted Constitutional Charter of 1814, gave many rights to upper middle class, gave few rights to poor

Liberal revolution in France inspired other liberal revolutions: Belgian Catholics revolted against Protestant Netherlands, proclaimed independent Belgium (1830)

Chamber of Deputies (Parliament) opposed his ideas. Charles X gained popular support by rallying. He conquered Algeria in 1830, increasing his popular support

Charles X repealed Constitutional Charter of 1814, removed voting rights of wealthy middle class, censored the press

Liberal Revolutions of 1848

French Revolution of 1848

French people hated reign of Louis Philippe, he was corrupt & only served wealthy elites

Group of Frenchmen (both bourgeoisie & proletariats led revolt against him in 1848. Louis Philippe abdicated, protestors created a 10-man council with republican government

Protestors established democratic republican constitution, known as France's second republic. Voting rights to all adult males

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Artisans & unskilled workers revolted, wanting a socialist government. Peasants didn't want socialism as it abolishes their private property. National Guard suppressed the revolt

In Apr 1848 legislative elections, monarchists & conservatives won, republicans & socialists lost, leading to more violence

Louis Blanc, a socialist, wanted many government-sponsored workshops (small factories / labs) where poor can work. Republicans wanted less workshops

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Government abolished Parisian workshops, forcing poor people to work in the provinces

Artisans revolted again, rioted in Parisian streets, known as "June Days," but national army suppressed it

Constituent Assembly (parliament) adopted constitution with strong leader. Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, won Dec 1848 elections, became president (Napoleon III)

Napoleon III's Rise to Power

Louis Napoleon gained popular support as he supported reform programs & would protect private property of poor peasants & urban workers

Louis Napoleon easily won election of Dec 1848, promoted vision of national unity & progress

Required to share power with National Assembly (parliament), signed conservative bills (more Catholicism, less rights for poor, etc) so that parliament could alter constitution & give him 2nd term

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In 1852, Louis Napoleon removed rights of parliament, proclaimed himself emperor Napoleon III, ruled as emperor from 1852-1870

In 1851, National Assembly refused to alter constitution to give him a 2nd term

Napoleon III's Rule in France

  • Ruled as emperor from 1852-1870

  • Promoted economic growth

    • Financed banks, railroads, public works

    • Rebuilt Paris

      • B​aron Georges Haussman planned the rebuilt Paris

      • Built tree-lined avenues & ring roads to ease transportation

      • Built more parks & removed slums

  • Gave urban workers right to form labor unions & strike, but they still resented his rule

  • At first, he had complete political power & gave little sovereignty to parliament

    • He chose his ministers & urged famous people to run for parliament to build popular support

    • Didn't give any power to parliament

    • Won in elections of 1857 and 1863

  • After 1863, his regime started falling apart

    • Wanted to reorganize Europe based on nationalities & even gain more territory for France

      • This caused many to resent him as they believed he was wasting resources

    • He understood that popular support is important for electoral victories, so he granted liberal reforms

      • Gave National Assembly (parliament) more power, gave opposition candidates more freedom​

    • He won elections of 1869, and drafted new constitution in 1870, giving parliament more power

    • In 1870, France lost Franco-Prussian War, making French power decline

    • In 1870, Parliament approved the constitution, making Napoleon III a democratic ruler instead of emperor


Revolutions of 1848 in Austrian Habsburg Empire

After liberal revolution in France, liberal ideas spread throughout Europe

Minorities in Austrian Habsburg empire wanted independence

Hungarians in Austrian empire started the revolution

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Conservative army, led by Sophia, crushed liberal rebellions. Sophia's son, Francis Joseph, became emperor in Dec 1848. Nicholas I of Russia helped retake Hungary

Due to disagreement among revolutionaries, Austrian conservatives

could distract them from possibility of liberal reform. Conservatives rallied under princess Sophia, emperor Ferdinand I's sister-in-law

Liberal revolutions weren't united & were in disagreement: Disagreed on ideas like universal male suffrage, socialist workshops, etc. Also, other minorities (Croats, Serbs, etc.) resented Hungarian rule

Revolutions of 1848 in Prussia & German Confederation

Liberal Germans wanted autocratic Prussia to be constitutional monarchy. Also wanted to unite the 38 German states (including Austria)

Liberals (mostly lower classes) rioted in Prussian Capital of Berlin (1848)

Prussian King Frederick William IV reluctantly agreed to liberal constitution, also agreed to unite all 38 states in German Confederation

Elections happened throughout the 38 German states (German Confederation) to elect parliament (known as Frankfurt Parliament). They would write a federal constitution to lead to unification

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Prussian Constituent Assembly met to write liberal constitution. Gave freedom of speech/religion, abolished aristocratic privileges, but ignored radical socialist changes sought by peasants. Conservatives urged the king to stop

Lower classes still wanted more liberal reforms. Wanted more socialist & democratic reforms

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Sought to unify all German states (including Austria) into Greater Germany but Austria refused. Later sought Lesser Germany (all German states w/o Austria)

In 1849, Prussian King Frederick William IV reasserted royal authority, disbanded Prussian Constituent Assembly & Frankfurt Parliament, made Prussia an autocracy

All hopes of unification were gone: Other German monarchies didn't recognize authority of Frederick William IV & state security suppressed liberal organizations

Reform Movements & Modernizations

Modernization of Russian Empire under Alexander II & III

  • After losing Crimean War, Russia felt like it was behind other nations & needed better weapons

    • Russia wanted to expand in Crimea, but a coalition of Britain, France, Ottomans defeated Russia

    • Tsar Alexander II realized Russia needed better weapons & more industrialization

  • Tsar Alexander II freed all serfs in 1861 so they could contribute to economy

    • Still, most lived poor lives on shared farms, which was similar to serfdom

  • Tsar Alexander II made some governmental changes

    • Established zemstvo, a local government council ​that dealt with local problems

      • This was subordinate to the state

    • Established courts, equality before law

    • Relaxed censorship laws

    • Gave some liberation to Russian Jews

  • Promoted railroad development

    • Gave loans to private rail companies

    • Made it easier to transport grain

  • Expanded more territory, suppressed nationalist movements of minorities

  • In 1884, a group of anarchists from "The People's Will" assassinated him

  • His son, Alexander III, promoted industrialization

    • Count Sergei Witte helped him industrialize

    • Encouraged Europeans to help Russians build railroads and factories

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Modernization of Russian Empire under Nicholas II

Tsar Nicholas II (took over in 1894) wanted to distract Russia from domestic issues. Sought to expand eastward into Manchuria & Korea

Japan was also expanding there, sparking Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Russia lost

Peasants & urban factory workers wanted more reforms as they gained little in Alexander II's reforms

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Russian army shot & killed 130 of them (Bloody Sunday Massacre)

In Jan 1905, massive crowd of workers marched to Winter Palace in St. Peterburg to ask for reforms

Russian army couldn't suppress the peasants as it was already devastated from Russo-Japanese War

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After workers went on strike in Oct 1905, Nicholas II issued October Manifesto: Gave full civil rights to everyone, created Duma, a parliamentary body

Duma met in 1906, drafted constittion called Fundamental Laws. However, tsar had absolute authority & appointed the Duma members 

Nicholas II later rewrote constitution, dismissed the Duma, increased rights to conservative property owners

Modernization of Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire was very large, couldn't maintain authority throughout its realm. Many nations (Greece, Serbia, Egypt, Algeria) evaded Ottoman rule

In 1839, liberal Ottomans launched reform called Tanzimat: Redesigned army according to Western standards

Sultan Abdulmejid I issued Imperial Rescript of 1856: Equality before the law (regardless of religion), western army, free trade

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Young Turk Party (group of exiled Ottomans) mounted a coup in 1908, forced Sultan Abdulhamid II to sign liberal constitution. Eventually, Ottoman collapsed & led to modern nation of Turkey after WW1

Sultan Abdulhamid II sought to remove foreign powers from Ottoman Empire but failed

Ottomans businesses prospered, but since all had excessive loans from foreigners, foreigners got most of the money. Little money went to Ottoman gov

Discoveries in Science & Art

  • Many discoveries were made in Chemistry & Electricity

    • Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table​

    • Electricity became commercial form of energy, used in telegraphs, radios, etc.

    • Internal Combustion Engine was developed

    • All of these led to 2nd Industrial Revolution

  • Charles Darwin created theory of natural selection

    • Believed evolution occurs as certain variations of species are more fit to survive than others

      • "Survival for the fittest"​

    • Europeans coined the term Social Darwinism to prove that Europeans were more fit than other races to survive

      • Used this to justify racism & colonialism​

  • Universities became more focused on research rather than curriculum

  • Sociology became common as many sociologists critiques modern society

  • Realism became common in art & literature

    • Realists depicted life as is

    • Mostly sought to depict the poor & middle classes as they are rarely depicted in literature

      • Would depict the harsh realities of their life

      • Often depicted labor strikes, violence, etc.

    • Realism became common in literature as authors would write about the harsh realities of modern life


Nationalist Developments:


Definition of Nationalism

  • Force of common identity among people of a common cultural, linguistic, or ethnic group
  • People used nationalism to justify that Jews & other minorities didn't belong as they were ethnically different from other Europeans
    • Jews often faced persecution in European society
    • Played a major role in political revolutions and unifications
    • Minorities faced persecution in European nations, especially in Russia
  • Theodor Herzl wrote a pamphlet called Judenstaat
    • Argued for a Jewish state​ in which all Jews can peacefully live
    • This was known as Zionism
    • Eventually, in 1948, Israel was created for all Jews to migrate​

Greek Independence

Greeks were under Ottoman control, but Greek Orthodox religion & Greek language survived

In 1821, Alexander Ypsilanti led Greek Nationalist rebellion

European nations refused to help Greeks: Believed Ottoman decline would allow Russian expansion into Balkans, compromising European balance of powers

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Russians helped Greeks get independence in 1830

Ottomans refused to accept an armistice, so Russian, French, British navies attacked Ottomans at Navarino

Ottomans looked to Europe for help against Greeks. Russia, France, Britain were busy with internal reforms, so they wanted an armistice


Unification of Italy

Camillo Cavour (prime minister of Kingdom of Piedmont & Sardinia) led unification missions throughout Northern Italy, expelled the Austrians from Northern Italy with help of French

Gave Nice & Savoy to France to gain French support. Peasants in Northern Italy supported unification & joined Cavour

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In 1870, Cavour and Garibaldi combined their lands into a unified Italy, ruled under Kingdom of Piedmont & Sardinia, by King Victor Emmanuel II. This was Parliamentary monarchy

Meanwhile, Giuseppe Garibaldi led Italian unification movements in Southern Italy. He got most of Southern Italy & Sicily under his control

Local peasants revolted against landlords, joined Mazzini's unification mission

Unification of Germany

Otto von Bismarck (prime minister of Prussia) defeated Austria in Austro-Prussian War (1866) & acquired Austrian-controlled northern German states

Bismarck defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) & acquired the French-controlled southern German States

Bismarck combined his holdings (north + south German states), unifying Germany in 1871. Known as Second Reich (First Reich was Holy Roman Empire)

State-Building After 1871

State-Building in Germany

  • German government was combination of Prussian states + 24 other German states

    • Strong national government was led by emperor & chancellor

    • Lower legislative house, Reichstag, had some authority

    • Otto von Bismarck (chancellor) kept ignoring requests of Riechstag & pursued his own goals

  • Kulturkampf was the Catholic Church's attack on German authority

    • Pope Pius IX believed he has absolute authority & wanted ​German Catholics to be more loyal to church than to German government

    • Catholic Center Party blocked kulturkampf laws in Riechstag

  • Bismarck later tried to suppress the German peasants

    • Switched his support to Catholic Center Party, gained support of Catholics & wealthy Protestants

    • Raised taxes on imports to protect domestic industry, which actually raised food prices

    • Suppressed activities of German Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1878 & passed anti-socialism laws

  • Bismarck also urged Riechstag to pass social security laws

    • Retirement benefits, accident insurance, etc. in 1883

  • In 1890, new emperor, William II, opposed anti-socialism laws

    • Fired chancellor Otto von Bismarck, legalized SPD

    • Tried to decrease size of SPD, but more members of SPD won seats in Riechstag, was largest party by 1912

    • SPD later became more patriotic, focused on military goals & expansion


France After 1871

In Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), Prussia defeated French in 1870. French republicans wanted to continue war, so Prussia defeated French in 1871 in Paris

Monarchists & conservatives were elected to Parliament. Surrendered Alsace & Lorraine to Prussia 

French republicans hated this surrender, Declared their own autonomous government called Paris Commune in March 1871

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Legalized trade unions, expanded colonial empire, made education compulsory for boys & girls. Catholic schools still existed

France needed a gov that leads to French unity. Chose a republican government

French army crushed Paris Commune

Pope Leo XIII hated implementation of secular schools

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Dreyfus affair led to more tension: Jewish army officer (Dreyfus) was falsely convicted. Catholics & anti-Semites opposed Dreyfus, but republicans believed Dreyfus was innocent

French gov removed all ties to Catholic church: Stopped paying salaries to priests, put lay Catholics in charge of churches, etc.

Britain & Ireland after 1871

Reform bill of 1884 gave all males right to vote. Britain was becoming more democratic

Unlike House of Commons, House of Lords hated democracy. Lords enacted bills against democracy from 1901-1910

In Commons, Liberal party came to power in 1906. Lords vetoed their pro-democracy bills

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After Irish Potato Famine (1845), Irish revolted against British rule, so British introduced bills giving them self-rule

Enacted the People's Budget, a bill that makes rich pay more taxes. Used this for social welfare benefits

Later, Lords agreed with Liberal Party in Commons to enact social welfare bills

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Protestants in Northern Ireland opposed self-rule while Catholics in Southern Ireland supported self-rule

Northern Irish raised armies to support their cause. English later supported them 

Later, after WW1, English passed bills to give self-rule to only Southern Ireland

Creation of Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867)

In 1848, Magyars revolted against Austrian rule, declared independent Hungarian nation

Russian & Austrian armies crushed the revolt, brought the Hungarian nation back into Austria

Austrian army was weak after Austro-Prussian War (1866). Agreed to divide Austria into 2 in 1867

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Ethnic rivalries weakened Austria as no party had majority rule. Hungary was weakened because only wealthy males could vote

Austria & Hungary had their own legislatures but had the same monarch

European Imperialism:


Causes of Imperialism

  • Europeans sought to colonize nations for economic purposes

    • Most wanted to control the raw materials of the colonies to supply to European industrial machines​

      • Europeans would then make manufactured goods & sell it to the colonies​

    • Britain colonized Egypt to gain access to Suez Canal

      • Provided easy access to India

  • Europeans also sought to spread Christianity to the colonies

  • Orientalism is the idea that Europeans viewed the colonies as exotic & wanted to see the life there

    • Many artists & novelists depicted the life in the colonies

  • Europeans sought to colonize other lands to "civilize" them

    • Believed those nations can't properly govern themselves

    • Believed it was a "civilizing mission"

    • Rudyard Kipling wrote White Man's Burden (1899), believed it was a burden to deal with uncivilized people

  • Advanced technology helped Europeans with imperialism

    • Railroads were built in colonies for transportation to help with governance & to transport raw materials to ports

    • Steamships were used to travel from Europe to the colonies

    • Telegraph lines were used for communication from Europe to the colonies & throughout the colonies

    • Maxim machine gun helped take over colonies


European Imperialism in Africa