Migration

Unit 6: c. 1750-1900

Main Ideas:

  • Migration was influenced by the need for jobs & changes in demographics that challenged the patterns of living

  • Migration was allowed by innovations in transportation, such as steam-powered locomotives & steamships

  • In addition to free-moving migrants, the global economy relied on coerced labor, such as Indian & Chinese indentured servitude and convict labor

  • Most migrants were male → Women were left behind to take new societal roles traditionally occupied by men

  • Migrants created ethnic enclaves in their new society to help adjust to their new home → Receiving society didn't always embrace them & sought immigration regulation

Events of Migration

Many People Migrated in Search of Work 

Key Ideas:

  • Migration was influenced by the need for jobs & changes in demographics that challenged the patterns of living

    • In Europe, overpopulation was a problem in the cities → Many Europeans sought to migrate elsewhere to get more living space

    • As Europeans colonized other lands, they opened job opportunities for potential migrants → Many Europeans migrated to the colonies to work in industrial-related jobs

    • The Americas also had a thriving agricultural & industrial economy → Many Europeans migrated to the Americas

  • Some migrants were coerced laborers such as Indian & Chinese indentured servants and convict laborers
    • Chinese indentured laborers were sent to guano fields in Cuba & Peru
    • Indian indentured laborers were sent by the British to labor in sugar plantations in other British colonies, such as Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa, Guyana, etc.

  • Migration was allowed by innovations in transportation, such as steam-powered locomotives & steamships
    • Many trans-Atlantic steamships emerged, and they allowed for the constant travel across the Atlantic
    • Within nations, many steam-powered locomotives were built → Easier migration within the nations

Effects of Migration

Migration Led to the Creation of Ethnic Enclaves & Lots of Anti-Immigration Prejudice 

Key Ideas:

  • Most migrants were male → Women were left behind to take new societal roles traditionally occupied by men

    • Most of the time, whole families didn't migrate, and only young unmarried men migrated to new places → Shortage of women in home countries → Allowed women to have more autonomy and perform roles previously reserved for men 

  • Migrants created ethnic enclaves in their new society to help adjust to their new home
    • Immigrants created ethnic enclaves in their receiving societies, where people would create restaurants, shops, temples, schools, etc. in the style of their native country
    • Many Italians migrated to Argentina & created enclaves there
    • Many Chinese migrated to the US & created ethnic enclaves called Chinatowns

  • The natives of the receiving society did not always embrace migrants & sought to regulate immigration
    • The US passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 to ban immigration from China