Global Resistance to Established Power Structures After 1900

Unit 8: c. 1900-Present

Main Ideas:

  • While conflict dominated most of the 20th century, some individuals and militarized states sought to intensify this conflict to expand their influence

  • While conflict dominated most of the 20th century, some individuals used nonviolence to bring political change

  • Some movements used violence against civilians to achieve their political aims

Conflict in 20th Century

Conflict Dominated the 20th Century: Some Groups Intensified it, While Others Opposed It 

Key Ideas:

  • While conflict dominated most of the 20th century, some individuals and militarized states sought to intensify this conflict to expand their influence

    • Francisco Franco, the Fascist Ruler of Spain, promoted violence to allow him to take over Spain

    • Augusto Pinochet, a Chilean military general, seized power in a 1973 coup, and he tortured a lot of his dissidents

    • Idi Amin was in the Ugandan military & seized power in a 1971 coup; he also killed hundreds of thousands of dissidents

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  • While conflict dominated most of the 20th century, some individuals used nonviolence to bring political change

    • Martin Luther King Jr. used nonviolence to end segregation by law for African-Americans in the US

    • Nelson Mandela used nonviolence to end Apartheid (segregation in South Africa)

    • Mohandas Gandhi used nonviolence to achieve India's independence

  • Some movements used violence against civilians to achieve their political aims

    • Al-Qaeda was an Islamic terrorist group that used terrorism to promote its political aim for strict Islamic nationalism​

      • The September 11 attacks (2001) were done by Al-Qaeda

    • Shining Path was the Peruvian Communist Party that killed many people to advance its aim for a communist state