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AP World History

Unit 3: c. 1450-1750

Land-Based Empires

Main Ideas of the Unit:

  • Various land-based empires emerged, and they all used common themes of tax-collection, monumental art & architecture, religion, military elites, bureaucracies, and gunpowder to expand & legitimize their rule

  • Interactions between different religions led to divisions among a religion (Protestant Reformation), conflict between religions (Ottomans vs Safavids), and the creation of syncretic religions (Sikhism)

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Overview of All Land-Based Empires (Outside Europe)

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Ottoman Empire

1299-1923 

Key Ideas:

  • Located in the Middle East, capital at Istanbul (Turkey)

    • Controlled Turkey and most of the Middle East at its height

  • Believed in Sunni Islam

  • Recruited soldiers & administrators by enslaving Christian boys through a program called devshirme

  • Sultan Suleyman I (r. 1520-1566) was the "great" emperor: Conquered lots of territory & oversaw flourishing arts & literature

Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566)

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Suleymaniye mosque, a representation of monumental architecture meant to legitimize the rule of the Ottoman Sultan

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Safavid Empire

1501-1736 

Key Ideas:

  • Located in Persia

    • Capital at Tabriz then at Isfahan

  • Believed in Shi'a Islam

  • Had a strong military run by military elites called qizilbash

  • Shah Abbas (r. 1588-1629) was the "great" emperor who consolidated Safavid power & oversaw construction of large palaces

Mughal Empire

1526-1857 

Key Ideas:

  • Located in India

    • Capital kept moving around: Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Delhi, Lahore​

  • Believed in Islam

    • Made accommodations for its Hindu-majority population: Emperor Akbar abolished the jizya, a special tax that all non-Muslims had to pay, but Emperor Aurangzeb reinstated it

  • Had Hindu tax farmers called zamindars

  • Had 6 Great emperors before the empire's decline

    • Babur (founder), Humayun, Akbar (the "great" Mughal emperor), Jahangir, Shah Jahan (who built the Taj Mahal), Aurangzeb (who reinstated the jizya)

Akbar the Great, the greatest Mughal emperor

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The Red Fort, a Mughal fort built by Shah Jahan. It represents monumental architecture meant to legitimize one's rule

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Ming Dynasty

1368-1644 

Key Ideas:

  • Sought to remain isolationist from European contact to protect Chinese culture from foreign influence

    • Restricted the activities of foreign merchants

  • Had a declining economy

    • Changed paper money to silver bullion, but that largely failed​

    • Many pirates raided the city

  • Fell in 1644 to the Manchus (from northern China, near China-Korea border)

    • Manchus came to help Ming Dynasty quell a peasant rebellion, but they instead took power after quelling the rebellion

Qing Dynasty

1644-1912 

Key Ideas:

  • Founded by Manchus, natives of Manchuria (northern China, near China-Korea border)

    • Forbade cultural contact between ethnic Chinese & Manchus

  • Even though Manchus were foreigners, they hired Chinese to run the government through the Confucian civil service exam

  • Had a strong military that conquered lots of territory

    • Emperors Kangxi & Qianlong conquered most of Central Asia

  • Very isolationist from European influence

    • Banned Christianity in 1724

    • Restricted trade to just a few cities (until foreigners started carving spheres of influence in 1800s, more on this in Unit 6)

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603-1868 

Key Ideas:

  • Located in Japan

    • Capital at Edo (Tokyo)

  • Originally had a feudal structure

    • Emperor at the top; Provincial rulers (daimyo) below them, warriors (samurai) below them, and peasants at the bottom

  • VERY strict in isolationism to protect their Japanese culture

    • Restricted Christianity

    • Restricted Japanese from traveling abroad

    • Restricted foreigners from trading there

    • Only the Dutch could come at the port of Nagasaki, where the Dutch taught many things to the Japanese & corrected their textbooks with correct info

Songhai Empire

1464-1591 

Key Ideas:

  • Located in West Africa

    • Previously controlled by Mali Empire

    • Sunni Ali established autonomy of Songhai Empire in 1494

    • Capital at Gao

  • Profited from trade in West Africa & Niger River Valley

    • Had a navy patrol the Niger River

  • Promoted Islam

  • Askia the Great (1493-1528) was the "great" emperor who conquered more territory & gained more influence in West Africa

  • Fell in Battle of Tondibi (1591) against Moroccans as the Moroccans were armed with guns (given by the Europeans)

Overview of European Kingdoms

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Kingdom of Spain

Formed in 1469 

Key Ideas:

Before 1469

Spain was divided into many kingdoms: Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal (all Christian), Granada (Muslim)

1469

King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile → They united their lands into a (mostly) unified Spain

1478

Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a program to suppress all non-Catholics

1492

Conquest of Granada: Ferdinand & Isabella conquered the last remaining Muslim Kingdom in Spain (Granada)

1556

King Charles V (ruler of Habsburg Kingdom) retires → His son, Philip II, inherits parts of Spain & Netherlands

1566-1648

Dutch Revolt: Calvinists in Low Countries oppose Philip II's Catholicism → Netherlands (north) gains independence; Belgium (south) remains in Spanish rule

1588

Spanish Armada: Philip II sends navy to England to convert England (which is Protestant) to Catholicism → He fails

Kingdom of France

Formed in 1453

Key Ideas:

1337-1453

Hundred Years' War: England vs France → France won → France started consolidating power after this victory

1516

Concordat of Bologna: Allowed French king to appoint church bishops in exchange for giving revenue to Pope

1559

King Henry II died, so his 3 sons took over and fought for control. One of the sons became King Henry III

1559-1572

Many French Calvinists (Huguenots) were in French countryside → Lots of fights between Catholics & Huguenots

1572

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: A marriage between a Catholic & Protestant in royal family → Deadly

1589

Henry III died → Henry of Navarre (groom in St. Bartholomew's Day wedding) became King Henry IV

1598

Edict of Nantes: Henry IV allowed Huguenots to practice their religion in 150 French cities

1618-1648

30 Years' War: Cardinal Richelieu was chief advisor to King Louis XIII & helped defeat Catholic Habsburgs (Austria)

1643-1715

Louis XIV's Reign: "Sun King"; built Palace of Versailles; Advisor Jean-Baptiste Colbert increased French size

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Kingdom of England

Formed in 10th century 

Key Ideas:

1534

King Henry XIV created the Church of England (Anglican Church)

1553-1558

Queen Mary's reign: Was Catholic & persecuted Protestants → Many Protestants exiled in mainland Europe

1558-1603

Queen Elizabeth's reign: Was Protestant → Protestant exilees returned & created Puritan church ("purifying" Anglicanism of its Catholic elements)

1603-1625

James I's reign: Was Catholic & claimed absolute power → Hated parliament

1625-1649

Charles I's reign: Was Catholic; Claimed absolute power → Rarely summoned his majority-Puritan Parliament

1642-1649

English Civil War: Charles I fought Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell) → Cromwell won & became king → Gave Parliament more power

1660

Stuart Restoration: Cromwell died → Charles II became king & restored King's absolute authority

1685-1688

James II's reign: Was Catholic → Promoted Catholicism in gov & schools

1688-1689

Glorious Revolution:Parliament opposed James II's Catholic policies → Imposed William & Mary as rulers

Holy Roman Empire

Formed in 800 

Key Ideas:

Before 1555

Made up of hundreds of small nation-states & very decentralized

1555

Peace of Augsburg: Emperor Charles V allowed each nation-state to choose Catholicism or Lutheranism

1618-1648

Thirty Years' War: A huge war between Catholics & Protestants in the empire

1648

Peace of Westphalia: Allowed each nation-state to choose Catholicism, Lutheranism, or Calvinism

Tsardom of Russia

Formed in 1480 

Key Ideas:

Before 1480

Russia was under control of the Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde

1480

Tsar Ivan III (Ivan the Great) declared independence from Mongols → Established Russian Tsardom

1533-1584

Reign of Ivan IV ("the terrible"): Had imperial expansion but killed a lot of dissidents (including his son)

1606-1613

Time of Troubles: Many monarchs were competing for power

1613

Michael Romanov became tsar, starting the Romanov Dynasty (ending in 1917)

1682-1725

Reign of Peter I ("the great"): Reformed Russia according to Western standards (military, culture, dress, etc.)

1762-1796

Reign of Catherine I ("the great"): Used Enlightenment principles in government → Less strict governance

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Habsburg Empire

Formed in 1526 

Key Ideas:

Early 1500s - 1556

Charles V was emperor of huge Habsburg domain (Spain, Sicily, Netherlands, Germany, etc.)

1556

Charles V retired → His son (Philip II) got Spain, Netherlands, and Sicily; His brother (Ferdinand I) got Austria

Expansion of Land-Based Empires

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Main Ideas:

  • Empires used gunpowder and military strength to establish large empires

  • Political & religious disputes led to rivalries between various states & empires

The Use of Gunpowder

Many Land-Based Empires Used Gunpowder to Establish their Rule 

Key Ideas:

  • The Ottomans, Mughals, and Safavids (known as the Gunpowder empires) used gunpowder to establish their rule & conquer more territory

    • The Russian empire also used gunpowder, but to a lesser extent​

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  • Other empires used military strength to capture more territory

    • All European empires were heavily armed and engaged in wars with one another

  • Some empires in East Asia used military strength to remain isolationist from European influence

    • Ming & Qing Dynasties of China and Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan used military strength to protect their empires from European influence

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Rivalries Between States

Political & Religious Disputes often led to Rivalries Between Empires 

Key Ideas:

  • Empires often fought each other for territory

    • Mughals & Safavids fought each other from 1649-53 over territory in Afghanistan​

    • Russia fought Sweden in the Great Northern War (1700-1721) to gain territory on the Baltic Sea

    • The Saadi Dynasty (from Morocco) defeated the Songhai Empire in 1591 as the Moroccans wanted control of gold mines in the Songhai Empire

Administration of Land-Based Empires

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Main Ideas:

  • Empires used bureaucracies & military elites to maintain centralized control of their populations

  • Rulers used religion & monumental architecture to legitimize their rule

  • Rulers used innovative tax-collecting systems to generate revenue for their empires

The Use of Bureaucracies

Bureaucracies & Military Elites Helped Empires Maintain Centralized Rule 

Key Ideas:

  • Many empires recruited bureaucracies to help run the government

    • The Ming & Qing Dynasties of China recruited a bureaucracy through a merit-based Confucian civil service exam

    • Through a program called devshirme, the Ottomans recruited Christian boys to its bureaucracy

    • The Mughals & Safavids also had a small bureaucracy

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  • Most empires were run by a group of military professionals or employed a large military

    • The gunpowder empires (Ottomans, Mughals, Safavids) were military states, and the military generals had a high social status

    • In Tokugawa Shogunate (Japan), the samurai (warriors) held high status

    • European kingdoms had large armies

      • Russia (under Ivan IV) used freed serfs (called cossacks) in their army​

  • Kingdoms had large powerful bureaucracies so that they could have a more centralized rule over their population

Religion & Monumental Architecture

Rulers used Religion & Monumental Architecture to Legitimize their Rule 

Key Ideas:

  • Many rulers promoted religion or even encouraged certain religious practices meant to honor their rule in order to legitimize their rule

    • Gunpowder empires (Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals) and the Songhai Empire promoted Islam to legitimize their rule

    • The Aztecs practiced human sacrifice to honor their rulers & gods

    • The Incas mummified their rulers after their death to honor them

    • European rulers used the idea of "divine right," claiming that god had allowed them to rule with absolute power​

  • Rulers commissioned art & monumental architecture to legitimize their rule: If someone sees the it, they'd realize that the person who built it must be in power

    • Mughals built the Taj Mahal & other mausoleums

    • Ottomans built Suleymaniye

    • Safavids built huge palaces

    • Qing Dynasty (China) created portraits of the emperors to put on display in their capital palace of Forbidden City

    • Europe had lots of palaces, such as the Palace of Versailles (France) & Schonbrunn Palace (Austrian Habsburgs)

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Tax Collection

Rulers Created Innovative Methods of Tax Collection to Raise Revenue for their Empires 

Key Ideas:

  • Rulers used tax-farming and innovative tax-collection methods to generate imperial revenue

    • Tax-farming: When ordinary people are employed by the state to collect taxes

    • Mughals employed Hindu farmers called zamindars to collect taxes through a tax-farming system

    • Ottomans also used tax-farming

    • Aztecs created special tribute lists for each of its neighboring regions (based on the specialities of each region)

    • Ming Dynasty (China) collected taxes in silver bullion

Belief Systems of Land-Based Empires

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Main Ideas:

  • Religious rivalries intensified political rivalries

  • Many syncretic religions formed due to interaction among multiple religions

Religious Rivalries

Interaction among Different Religions lead to Religious Rivalries 

Key Ideas:

  • The Protestant Reformation in Europe created a huge political & religious rivalry between Protestants & Catholics

    • Martin Luther, a theology professor, believed the Catholic Church was corrupt → Created the Protestant branch of Christianity

      • He believed that the true source of religious authority is in god and the Bible, not in the Church's clergy

    • As Protestants & Catholics fought each other, they created different branches of Christianity, contributing to the growth of Christianity

    • The Catholic Counter-reformation, known as the Council of Trent (1545-63) was when the clergy reformed the Catholic church to respond to the Protestants' concerns and win back some converts

      • Also contributed to the growth of Christianity, especially through its Jesuit branch (which emphasized strict religious piety & education)​​​​​

  • There were many other religious rivalries caused by political rivalries between land-based empires

    • Ottomans were Sunni Islam, while Safavids were Shi'a Islam → Both empires fought over territory → Ottomans defeated Safavids at Battle of Chaldiran (1514)

    • Protestants fought Catholics on many occasions

      • Thirty Years' War (1618-48) → Peace of Westphalia (1648), allowing each region in Holy Roman Empire to choose its own religion​

      • Spanish Armada (1588): Spanish Catholics vs English Protestants → English won

      • Dutch Revolt (80 Years' War) (1568-1648): Spanish Catholics vs Dutch Protestants → Dutch gained independence (Netherlands)

Syncretic Religions

Interactions Between Different Religions Led to the Creation of Syncretic Religions 

Key Ideas:

  • Interactions between different religions → Creation of syncretic religions

    • Interactions among Hindus & Muslims in India → Creation of Sikhism

    • Interactions among Portuguese Catholic missionaries & Native West Africans → Various syncretic religions to harmonize Christianity with African traditions

    • Interactions between different African slaves & Europeans in Americas → Syncretic slave culture (i.e. voodoo)

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